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Flashcards in Toddler 1 Deck (54):
1

Objectives

Identify key development milestones of the preschool aged child
Describe the developmental tasks of the preschool child, including motor characteristics, sensory characteristics, global mental, specific mental, play, and self-care.

2

Age 1-5 (Text covers infancy & toddler, the first 2 years; and early childhood, 2-6 years of age)
*Research has shown that brain development (neurologic organization) during this time is use-dependent.
Continued growth of CNS, brain, and physical growth

Preschool Age Children ages 1-5

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Ability to keep the body balanced and aligned

Postural stability

4

Ability to maintain posture when the body is still

Static postural stability

5

What is dynamic postural stability?

look up

6

Kicking a ball
A toddler may run up to the ball, stop, shift his/her weight to maintain balance, and then kick the ball
As a child ages, he/she will complete all steps more fluidly
What will the child get better at with practice?

FLOW and CALIBRATION

7

smooth, fluid movements
Related to dynamic postural stability

FLOW

8

judgment of force, speed, and directional control needed when attempting a task

CALIBRATION

9

Using rotational movements to maintain balance
Emerge between 12-21mths and mature through the age of 4-5.

Equilibrium Reactions

10

Used for large or heavy objects. Full strength of the hand is used. The selection of the power grasp will depend on the size and shape of the object being manipulated

Power Grasps


11

gripping a ball to throw it

Spherical Grip

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Using two hands to wrap around an object to grasp.

Cylindrical Grip

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the grasp toddlers use to hang on for balance. Used for monkey bars at school ages

Hook Grip

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grasp used to put key into. When the arm is parallel with floor.

Plate or Lateral Prehension

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Typically used for smaller object manipulation. Using the thumb and two fingers to pick up something

Tripod Position

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Typically used for smaller object manipulation. Using One finger and thumb to pick up something

Pincer Grasp

17

Happiness, interest, anger, sadness, fear, etc.
Demonstrated as infants develop into toddlers

Basic Emotions

18

What two arousal states do newborns demonstrate?

sleeping or survival instincts (eating, drinking )

19

Sensory Characteristics of the Preschool Aged Child

Sensory perceptions, Sensory integration

20

kids begin to have more control over perceptual motor skill
example
Walking a line, throwing a ball at a target, climbing stairs or playground equipment

Sensory perceptions

21

A combining of sensory information to allow for accurate categorization of perceptual information.

Sensory Integration

22

Theory that relates senses to learning and development of functional skills
i.e. attention span, eye-hand coordination, visual perception
global and specific mental functions depend on adequate organization of sensory information

Sensory Integration Theory

23

Consider a child who has difficulty with sensory integration….

What are some Global and Specific Mental functions

Energy and drive
Temperament and personality
Intellectual
Attention
Emotion
Sequencing complex movements

24

Touch Skills

-Discriminative Touch
-Haptic Perception

25

Conscious touch
Hard, smooth, or curvature of an object

Discriminative Touch

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Active memory of touch
i.e. a child knows he/she has a pencil in his/her hand even though he/she can’t see it; can identify textures

Haptic Perception

27

Inappropriate response to tactile stimulus
Typically an avoidance or protective response
Can lead to selective choices of food and clothing
Can adversely effect hand skills, self-care, and social skill development

Tactile Defensiveness

28

Self-recognition is well-established by the age of 2. What does self-recognition involve? (p158)

knowing who they are. (looking at self in mirror)

29

The sequence of self-care acquisition may vary

Typically….
By the end of preschool age, the child is independent in toileting, basic personal care, and can function with minimal supervision in a school setting.
ADLs-
IADLs-

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-the ability to work cooperatively,
-know when they need to ask permission,
-use acceptable manners
-deal with frustrations.

The key to a child’s school-readiness is

31

Children practice and learn skills through

Play

32

How has play with mother and father changed in many Western nations over the past decades? (p156)

Roles have changed. Mothers are working fathers are staying home.

33

-Used in physical therapy to assist in motor skill development
-typically results in pleasure and pleasure drives the child to repeat tasks that are pleasurable
-“This inner drive toward mastery of skills through________ is one of the basic premises of sensory integration theory”

Play

34

“innate drive to find solutions”

Mastery motivation

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-A child’s belief in his/her personal power to change things
-Important for school-readiness

Self-efficacy

36

Types of Play

Solitary play
Onlooker play
Parallel play
Associate play
Cooperative play
Fantasy play
Constructive play

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Play in social exchange and independently

Solitary play

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Child watches others play

Onlooker play

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Children play in same vicinity and may be engaged in similar tasks (2yrs)

Parallel play

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Little organization to play; children follow each other in a line, borrow toys, and demonstrate toys (2yrs)

Associate play

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Social interaction and group activity

Cooperative play

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Child uses props, dresses up, etc…
Good for role play in a “safe” environment (preschool age)

Fantasy play

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The making and building of things
Parallels fine motor and manipulation development and skills (3-4 yrs)

Constructive play

44

Tuesday
Exam #2
45-50 questions (2pts each)
Primarily Week 3 through 5
Answer syllabus and class objectives with use of notes and text readings to study
PBS Developmental Milestones handout

fyi

45

what is the difference between the zygote and the embryo

review

46

- the 3 layers of the embryo gives rise to what?

review

47

- production of spinal cord

review

48

- limb development begins

review

49

- ossification

review

50

sexual differentiation

review

51

adipose tissue verus brown-fat

review

52

- age of viability

review

53

- full development of neonatal reflexes

review

54

-when thermal support is required after birth

review