Flashcards in Toddler 1 Deck (54):
Identify key development milestones of the preschool aged child
Describe the developmental tasks of the preschool child, including motor characteristics, sensory characteristics, global mental, specific mental, play, and self-care.
Age 1-5 (Text covers infancy & toddler, the first 2 years; and early childhood, 2-6 years of age)
*Research has shown that brain development (neurologic organization) during this time is use-dependent.
Continued growth of CNS, brain, and physical growth
Preschool Age Children ages 1-5
Ability to keep the body balanced and aligned
Ability to maintain posture when the body is still
Static postural stability
What is dynamic postural stability?
Kicking a ball
A toddler may run up to the ball, stop, shift his/her weight to maintain balance, and then kick the ball
As a child ages, he/she will complete all steps more fluidly
What will the child get better at with practice?
FLOW and CALIBRATION
smooth, fluid movements
Related to dynamic postural stability
judgment of force, speed, and directional control needed when attempting a task
Using rotational movements to maintain balance
Emerge between 12-21mths and mature through the age of 4-5.
Used for large or heavy objects. Full strength of the hand is used. The selection of the power grasp will depend on the size and shape of the object being manipulated
gripping a ball to throw it
Using two hands to wrap around an object to grasp.
the grasp toddlers use to hang on for balance. Used for monkey bars at school ages
grasp used to put key into. When the arm is parallel with floor.
Plate or Lateral Prehension
Typically used for smaller object manipulation. Using the thumb and two fingers to pick up something
Typically used for smaller object manipulation. Using One finger and thumb to pick up something
Happiness, interest, anger, sadness, fear, etc.
Demonstrated as infants develop into toddlers
What two arousal states do newborns demonstrate?
sleeping or survival instincts (eating, drinking )
Sensory Characteristics of the Preschool Aged Child
Sensory perceptions, Sensory integration
kids begin to have more control over perceptual motor skill
Walking a line, throwing a ball at a target, climbing stairs or playground equipment
A combining of sensory information to allow for accurate categorization of perceptual information.
Theory that relates senses to learning and development of functional skills
i.e. attention span, eye-hand coordination, visual perception
global and specific mental functions depend on adequate organization of sensory information
Sensory Integration Theory
Consider a child who has difficulty with sensory integration….
What are some Global and Specific Mental functions
Energy and drive
Temperament and personality
Sequencing complex movements
Hard, smooth, or curvature of an object
Active memory of touch
i.e. a child knows he/she has a pencil in his/her hand even though he/she can’t see it; can identify textures
Inappropriate response to tactile stimulus
Typically an avoidance or protective response
Can lead to selective choices of food and clothing
Can adversely effect hand skills, self-care, and social skill development
Self-recognition is well-established by the age of 2. What does self-recognition involve? (p158)
knowing who they are. (looking at self in mirror)
The sequence of self-care acquisition may vary
By the end of preschool age, the child is independent in toileting, basic personal care, and can function with minimal supervision in a school setting.
-the ability to work cooperatively,
-know when they need to ask permission,
-use acceptable manners
-deal with frustrations.
The key to a child’s school-readiness is
Children practice and learn skills through
How has play with mother and father changed in many Western nations over the past decades? (p156)
Roles have changed. Mothers are working fathers are staying home.
-Used in physical therapy to assist in motor skill development
-typically results in pleasure and pleasure drives the child to repeat tasks that are pleasurable
-“This inner drive toward mastery of skills through________ is one of the basic premises of sensory integration theory”
“innate drive to find solutions”
-A child’s belief in his/her personal power to change things
-Important for school-readiness
Types of Play
Play in social exchange and independently
Child watches others play
Children play in same vicinity and may be engaged in similar tasks (2yrs)
Little organization to play; children follow each other in a line, borrow toys, and demonstrate toys (2yrs)
Social interaction and group activity
Child uses props, dresses up, etc…
Good for role play in a “safe” environment (preschool age)
The making and building of things
Parallels fine motor and manipulation development and skills (3-4 yrs)
45-50 questions (2pts each)
Primarily Week 3 through 5
Answer syllabus and class objectives with use of notes and text readings to study
PBS Developmental Milestones handout
what is the difference between the zygote and the embryo
- the 3 layers of the embryo gives rise to what?
- production of spinal cord
- limb development begins
adipose tissue verus brown-fat
- age of viability
- full development of neonatal reflexes