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Flashcards in Nonsense Deck (24):
1

substance screening for young ppl

CRAFFT= car, relax, alone, forge, family/friends, trouble

2

Most useful EtOH biomarkers

EtG- urine, hair, nail

3

who is brief intervention useful for and what is the goal

non-dependent problem drinkers. Cut use (not abstinence)

4

Steps in brief intervention

Advise (personal advice change), Assess (willingness to change), Assist (help make change), Arrange (reinforcement)

5

four principles of MI

express empathy, develop discrepancy, roll with resistance, support self-efficacy

6

MI techniques:

OARS: open-ended questions, Affirmations, Reflective listening, Summaries

7

stages of change

precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance

8

Limbic system in IBD

Anterior cingulate cortex determines how pain is emotionally experience. Increased activity in IBS

9

changes in pain pathway in IBD

visceral hypersensitivity (increased awareness, central sensitization), hyperalgesia (peripheral sensitization, decreased PAG activity)

10

HPA axis in IBD

affected by stress levels, impacts intestinal motility

11

Serotonin in IBD

IBS-D=overproduction of serotonin, IBS-C=underproduction of serotonin

12

most common psychiatric condition in IBD

Anxiety disorder

13

Visceral anxiety in IBD

GI-specific anxiety. Hypervigilance of GI symptoms.

14

Catastrophizing in IBD

Rumination about symptoms and their consequences. Feelings of helplessness

15

what age group has 70% of diarrhea deaths? How has incidence and mortality of under5 diarrhea changed

under 2. Mortality down, incidence stayed the same.

16

Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS): what did it find

Rotavirus, cryptosporidium, ST-ETEC, shigella account for most diarrhea. Higher odds of death, decrease in linear growth

17

Osmolarity of hydration salts? Of Normal Saline? What solutes does it contain? What other nutrients do you give them?

245 mmol/L, 154 mmol/L. Na, K, glucose to facilitate Na absorption, citrate. Zinc supplementation, antibiotics

18

What can be done to prevent diarrhea

Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 6 months!!, vaccinate against rotavirus

19

Cycle of Ascariasis, hookworm, trichuriasis (whipworm), W. bancrofti

ingested>portal>lungs>intestine.
Larvae penetrate skin>bloodstream>lungs>intestine>feed on blood
ingested>live in ascending colon>lay eggs in colon
Mosquito>lymphatics (causes lymphatic filariasis)>mosquito

20

what is the definition of diarrhea

>3 stools/day, >200 g/day

21

most common cause of chronic (>4 wks) diarrhea seen in US

IBD

22

Key difference b/w soap note and H&P

SOAP focuses on active problems and is used for daily progress updates

23

what goes in subjective?

what patient tells you as well as key updates since the last time patient was seen (test results, concerns, etc)

24

for pts with multiple problems, how do you write up the Assessment/plan

you group by problem (problem 1, plan 1, problem 2, plan 2)