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Biochemistry 2 > Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids Deck (104):
1

what is a purine

guanine and adenine for both DNA and RNA

2

what is a pyrimidine

thymine and cytosine for DNA
uracil and cytosine for RNA

3

what is a nucleoside

base + sugar

4

what is a nucleotide

base + sugar + phosphate

5

name the free base and nucleotide of the nucleoside Adenosine

adenine
AMP-ADP-ATP-cAMP

6

name the free base and nucleotide of the nucleoside Guanosine

Guanine
GMP-GDP-GTP-cGMP

7

name the free base and nucleotide of the nucleoside Inosine

Hypoxanthine
IMP

8

name the free base and nucleotide of the nucleoside Uridine

Uracil
UMP-UDP-UTP

9

name the free base and nucleotide of the nucleoside Cytidine

Cytosine
CMP-CDP-CTP

10

name the free base and nucleotide of the nucleoside Thymidine

Thymine
TMP-TDP-TTP

11

What do nucleosides end in

ine

12

what is needed to synthesize purine nucleotides

ATP

13

what is ATP required for each

Kinase
synthetase
ring closure step

14

is this a ATP utilizing pathway

YES

15

What is the starting material for synthesis of purine nucleotides

Ribose 5 phosphate

16

what pathway does Ribose 5 phosphate come from

PPP or pentose phosphate pathway

17

what does PRPP stand for

Phosphoribosyl 1-phosphate pyrophosphate AKA 5 phosphoribosyl 1 pyrophosphate

18

PRPP does what

Nucleotide salvage
biosynthesis of tryptophan and histidine

19

Ribose 5 phophate to
PRPP to
?

IMP

20

what is the precursor to other purine nuceotides

inosine monophosphate IMP

21

what must be made first to turn into AMP and GMP

IMP

22

what does not accumulate significantly within the cell

IMP

23

what is IMP the starting material to

GMP
AMP

24

what do reactions need

nitrogen from glutamine

25

what is the nitrogen donor

glutamine

26

what is the first committed step

5 phosphoribosyl 1 pyrophosphate to 5 phosphoribosylamine

27

what will inhibit reaction

AMP and GMP or increased product will inhibit reaction

28

what is needed

ATP

29

what is the methyl donor

THF Tetrahydrofolate

30

the ATP utilizing step is

5 phosphoribosylamine to glycinamide ribonucletide GAR

31

what is the reaction that is adding a Carbon

GAR to FGAR by adding a methyl group (THF) by enzyme GAR transformylase

32

what is also part of these reactions

glutamine to glutamate

33

ATP utilizing pathway is

FGAR to AIR

34

another ATP utilizing pathway is

AIR to SACAIR

35

what is released

fumarate

36

by adding a carbon what is the reaction

SACAIR to FAICAR

37

what is the precursor

IMP

38

what is the reaction the precursor is found

FAICAR to IMP

39

how many reactions does it take to get to AMP and GMP from IMP

2 reactions

40

what is all used in the pathway

carbon
nitrogen
methyl

41

CO2
Aspartate
N10 formyl THF
gluatmine
glycine
Are all steps to what

IMP

42

what is brought in

aspartate

43

what inhibits amidophosphoriboooosyl transferase

hypoxanthine

44

T/F
purine nucleotides are synthesized PREFERENTIALLY by salvage pathways so long as hypoxanthine is available

true

45

what are the three bases to the desired product

Adenine +PRPP +ATP >AMP + PPi
Guanine + PRPP + GTP> AMP + PPi
Hypoxanthine + PRPP > IMP + PPi

46

name the steps

PRPP
5 phosphoribosylamine
GAR
FGAR
AIR
SACAIR
FAICAR
IMP > to either AMP or GMP
and all sent back to IMP by either:
Salvage pathways> AMP, GMP, Hypoxanthine

47

what happens to nucleotides during degradation of purines to uric acid

nucleotides are converted to nucleosides

48

what happens to nucleosides during degradation of purines to uric acid

nucleosides are converted to free bases

49

what happens to free bases during degradation of purines to uric acid

free bases are converted to a common base (Xanthine)

50

what is the common base

xanthine

51

what happens to xanthine during degradation of purines to uric acid

xanthine is converted to uric acid

52

what happens to uric acid during degradation of purines to uric acid

uric acid is excreted

53

what is the purine monophosphate IMP broken down to a nucleoside called and then what is the name broken down to a free base called

IMP
Inosine
hypoxathine

54

what is the purine monophosphate XMP broken down to a nucleoside called and then what is the name broken down to a free base called

XMP
xanthosine
xanthine

55

what is the purine monophosphate GMP broken down to a nucleoside called and then what is the name broken down to a free base called

GMP
Guanosine
Guanine

56

what is the purine monophosphate AMP broken down to a nucleoside called and then what is the name broken down to a free base called

AMP
Adenosine
Hypoxanthine

57

what is xanthine oxidized to form

uric acid

58

what are the free bases that are converted to a common base xanthine

Guanine
Hypoxanthine
Inosine>Hypoxanthine
Adenosine > Inosine>Hypoxanthine

59

Xanthine to Uric acid by what enzyme

xanthine oxidase

60

what is the final metabolic product of purine catabolism in primates

uric acid

61

what is caused by an accumulation of excess uric acid

gout

62

uric acid has what kind of solubility

low

63

what is gout

precipitation of needle shaped crystals in soft tissue (joints)

64

what is used to treat gout

allopurinol

65

what causes inhibition of xanthine oxidase

allopurinal

66

what is a nitrogen base

a purine or a pyrimidine

67

where is the addition of the sugar ribose from

PRPP

68

what is the initial ring formation in the ATP utilizing pathway

CAD

69

in the ATP utilizing pathway what is oxidation with

with a dehydrogenase

70

where is carbamoyl phosphate from

the urea cycle

71

in the urea cycle where is carbamoyl phosphate from

mitochodrial matrix

72

in the pyrimidine synthesis cycle where is carbamoyl phosphate from

cytosol

73

what is the ring formation enzymes

CAD
Carbomoyl phosphatase synthetase
Aspartate transcarbamoylase
Dihydroorotase

74

what is the first nitrogen donor

glutamine

75

what happens during oxidation with a dehydrogenase

hihydroorotate to orotate by dihydroorotase dehydrogenase with unbiquinone

76

orotate to UMP by ?

adding PRPP and taking away CO2 by UMP synthase

77

what does not donate nitrogen to pyrimidine

glycine

78

what donates to UMP

glutamine
HCO3-
Aspartate

79

what donates nitrogen

glutamine

80

UTP to CTP by CTP synthetase is

amination of UTP

81

CTP synthesis to what enzymes by what reactants

UMP > UDP
CMP > CDP
both are to UMP Kinase

UDP > UTP
CDP > CTP
both are to Nucleotide diphosphskinase

82

what is not salvaged in humans

cytosine

83

what does have some cytosine deaminase

bacteria and fungi

84

what is converted to fluorouracil which is toxic and what is it converted by

fluorocytosine is converted to flourouracil by cytosine deaminase

85

what are the salvage pathways of pyrimidines

uracil + PRPP > UMP + PPi
thymidine + ATP > TMP + PPi

86

what is the enzyme in the formation of deoxynucleotides

ribonucleotide reductase

87

ribonucleotide reductase does what to NDP

turns it into dNDP

88

adenine, guanine, and uracil

direct reduction of the 2' hydroxyl group
enzyme is ribonucleotide reductase

89

how is deoxy-TMP or TMP unique to DNA

has its own special pathway
still utilizes ribonucleotide reductase

90

what is TMP

Thymidine monophosphate

91

what does the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxynucleotides only occur as

diphosphates not monophosphates

92

thymidine synthesis name the pathway

UMP
UDP
dUDP
dUTP (add a methyl donor THF)
dUMP
TMP
TDP
TTP

93

5 important things for thymidine synthesis

1) separate pathway
2) main enzyme is thymidylate synthase
3) folic acid is a coenyzme
4) methyl group difference THP
5) NADPH is utilized

94

what is the donor that donates:
N for purines
N and C for pyrimidines

aspartate

95

Name the donor that donates:
N for purines
N for pyrimidines

Glutamine

96

Name the donor that donates:
N for purines

Glycine

97

Name the donor that donates:
C for pyrimidines

Bicarbonate

98

Name the donor that donates:
C for purines

Carbon dioxide

99

Name the donor that donates:
C for purines
C for pyrimidine (thymidine)

Folic acid (THF)

100

what are the raw materials for making nucleotides

nitrogen donors= GAG
sugar donor= ribose form from the PPP
Carbon donor= folic acid, AA, CO2, bicarbonate, THF
Energy donor= ATP

101

what is the precursor purine nucleotide

IMP to AMP and/or GMP

102

What is the precursor pyrimidine nucleotide

UMP to CMP and/or TMP

103

purine degradtion

common base= xanthine
metabolic pathway fro excretion= uric acid or urate
to much uric aciod= precipitation of uric acid crystals= gout

104

PRPP

ribose with a phosphate and a pyrophosphate
used to creat both purine and pyrimidine nucleotides