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Flashcards in Pentose Phosphate Pathway Deck (104):
1

What does the PPP start with

Starts with glucose 6 phosphate

2

What's another name for the PPP

Heroes monophosphate pathway

3

What does the PPP make

Ribose
NADPH

4

What is ribose needed for

Needed for DNA RNS and other molecules
When new cells are being created the PPP is stimulated

5

What is being stimulated with new cells are created

PPP

6

What is NADPH needed for

Needed for reductive biosynthesis detoxification respiratory burst and antioxidant regeneration

7

When is the PPP stimulated

When any of these pathways consume NADPH

8

What is the main enzyme

Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase

9

What does the PPP produce

Produces ribose 5 phosphate

10

What is needed for DNA RNA and other molecules

Ribose

11

What is stimulated when new cells are being created

PPP

12

When you consume NADPH what is stimulated

PPP

13

What is not produced and consumed

ATP

14

what happens during the pentose phosphate pathway

One glucose six phosphate to two NADPH

15

What are the products of ribose five phosphate

Nucleic acid
ATP
CoA
NAD
FAD

16

What are the products of NADPH +H

Reductive biosynthesis
free radical elimination
detoxification
respiratory bursts

17

What are the products of glycerol aldehyde 3P and Fructose 6 phosphate

Glycolysis

18

What are the DNA base pairing's

AT
GC

19

Anything that contains ribose stimulates what

PPP

20

What is oxidized in the electron transport chain to make ATP

NADH

21

NADPH is an electron donor during what

Reductive biosynthesis
respiratory burst
detoxification
regeneration of antioxidants or free radical elimination

22

What are two parts of the PPP

Oxidative reactions nonoxidative reactions

23

What do you oxidative reactions do

Make NADPH

24

What do nonoxidative reactions do

Ribose five phosphate can be converted into intermediates of glycolysis
Ribose five phosphate can be used to make nucleotides nucleic acid and other structures

25

What are the four individual steps

Dehydrogenation
hydrolysis
oxidative decarboxylation
isomerization

26

What is their dehydrogenation of

Glucose-6-phosphate

27

What is hydrolyzed

Six Phosphoglucono and lactone

28

What is yielded during oxidative decarboxylation

Ribulose five phosphate

29

What happens during isomerization

Ribulose five phosphate to Ribose five phosphate

30

What are the reactants

Glucose-6-phosphate
NADP+

31

What are the products

NADPh
6 phosphoglucono lactone

32

What is the main enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

33

What two pathways are linked

Glycolysis PPP
Molecules move back-and-forth from each pathway

34

What can turn into ribose five phosphate

Glucose-6-phosphate

35

What can ribose five phosphate turn back into

Glycolysis intermediates

36

What is the link

Transskeletolace and transaldolase

37

Transskeletolace and transaldolase

These enzymes build a reversible link between the pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis

38

Where is NADPH utilized

Reductive biosynthesis detoxification respiratory burst antioxidant regeneration

39

Reductive biosynthesis
NADPH as an electron donor

Building fat building cholesterol building steroid hormones building bile salts

40

Building fat building cholesterol building steroid hormones building bile salts
What do you all of these processes require electrons from

NADPH

41

what is the reducing power

NADPH

42

Oxidative reactions are what

Irreversible

43

How are water toxins made soluble for excretion?

By adding electrons and oxygen
NADPH is the electron donor

44

How are toxins excreted

In the urine

45

What process are they excreted

P450 monooxygenase system in the liver

46

How is the toxin removed from the body

By making it more water soluble and getting out in the urine

47

What does the ER in the liver cells contain

Contain cytochrome p450 mono oxygenase systems

48

What does the p450 mono oxygenase system do

Adds hydroxyl to aromatic and aliphatic compounds

49

By adding the hydroxyl groups to aromatic and aliphatic compounds what does it do to

Makes them water soluble and able to be excreted in the urine

50

What are respiratory bursts

Creating harsh chemistry to kill bad guys non self like bacteria by using electrons from NADPH

51

What takes in more oxygen in respiratory burst

White blood cells

52

What makes very reactive molecules

Oxygen and electrons from NADPH

53

What happens to the reactive molecule and non self bacteria

They are sequestered in a vehicle where the bacteria dies

54

Name the harsh chemistry steps

NADPH tin NADP out O2 in and O2- out
Superoxide dismutase (create free radical)
H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide)
Myeloperoxidase
HOCl (hypochlorite acid)

55

What's hydrogen peroxide used to create

Recited species to destroy bacteria, viruses, and other non self

56

What does the enzyme myeloperoxidase make

Makes hypochlorite acid from hydrogen peroxide

57

What do you add to antioxidants so they can keep protecting the body from free radicals

Electrons NADPH

58

What are reactive ole uses inactivated by

Antioxidants because they give electrons to reactive molecules

59

What must the antioxidants be given to restore their reducing power

An electron

60

What gives the antioxidants an electron

NADPH REGENERATION

61

A substance that inhibits oxidation and is capable of counteracting he damaging effects of oxidation in body tissue

Antioxidant

62

Atom or molecule that has one or more unpaired electrons

Free radical

63

The unpaired electron is alone in the outer orbital making it very what

Reactive

64

What does ROS stand for

Reactive oxygen species

65

What does RNS stand for

Reactive nitrogen species

66

What are free radicals containing nitrogen or oxygen referred to as

RNS
ROS

67

See slide

51

68

What do reactive species have the potential to do to other compounds

To oxidize or reduce other compounds

69

Do reactive species always have to be a free radical

No

70

Superoxide radical
Hydrogen peroxide
Hydroxyl radical
Carbon centered peroxide hydropeoxyl and lipid perioxides
Singlet molecular oxygen

Reactive species

71

Smog ozone chemicals drugs radiation high oxygen concentrations

Generated by multiple events reactive species

72

What are the three common radicals\ reactive species
KNOW THIS

O2 superoxide
H2O2 hydrogen peroxide
OH hydroxyl

73

What attacks polyunsaturated fat in phospholipids, protein in cells,nuclei. Acids in DNA

Free radicals and reactive species

74

What is a process by which electronically excited molecules are inactivated

Quenching

75

What happens when quenching

Is usually an antioxidant giving an electrons or electrons to the free radical

76

What happens when free radicals are quenched

Antioxidants get oxidized

77

Process by which the antioxidants reducing power is restored

Regeneration

78

What is usually another antioxidant or NADPH giving an electron to the oxidized antioxidant

Regeneration

79

When an antioxidant is regenerated

They are being reduced

80

What do free radicals have that is unpaired and that they want too steal

Electrons
Free radicals oxidize: protein phospholipids DN A

81

What do antioxidants give electrons to

Free radical

82

Get oxidized
Quench free radicals
Protect proteins phospholipids DNA

Antioxidants

83

what do antioxidants need to be

Regenerated
NADPH gives electrons to antioxidants

84

What are three important enzymes

Superoxide dismutase
Catalase
Glutathione peroxidase

85

Enzymes are proteins which are

Induce or you can make more of them

86

Superoxide dismutase

Quenches superoxide

87

Catalase

Quenches hydrogen peroxide

88

Glutathione peroxidase

Quenches hydrogen peroxide

89

What's the location of superoxide dismutase

Extracellular
Cytoplasm
Mitochondria

90

What's the function of a SOD superoxide dismutase

Eliminate superoxide
Produce hydrogen peroxide

91

What does superoxide dismutase require

Zinc
Copper
Manganese (mitochondria)

92

What happens to a superoxide

It's quenched

93

A superoxide radical is not

Lipid soluble
Do not diffuse too far from their site of production

94

White blood cells
Cytochrome p450( ER has the enzyme cytochrome p450 reductase)
Mitochondrial production (Electron transport chain)
Folate or THF oxygen reactions
Catechu laming oxygen reactions

Is what a superoxide is created by

95

Three things under superoxide radical

Addition of an electron to a molecular oxygen
Created by various things
Not lipid soluble

96

Mitochondrial production

Superoxide can be formed within the electron transport system

97

What increased the Elton transport China effect

Exercise

98

What is the location of a catalase

Mostly in cell peroxisomes (oxidation of very long FAs)
Smaller amounts in: cytoplasm, mitochondria, microsomes
Iron dependent

99

What's the function of a catalase

Eliminate hydrogen peroxide
Neutrophils have lots of catalase (respiratory burst)

100

What happens to the hydrogen peroxide with a catalase

It is quenched

101

What is the hydrogen peroxide quenched with glutathione peroxidase

Because GPX is active in the cytosol and mitochondria, most hydrogen peroxide is removed this way

102

What's the most important antioxidant

Glutathione

103

Tripeptide is

Glutamate cysteine glycine

104

What does regenerating antioxidants require

Electrons from NADPH