NURS 302 EXAM 4 RENAL Flashcards Preview

4TH SEMESTER > NURS 302 EXAM 4 RENAL > Flashcards

Flashcards in NURS 302 EXAM 4 RENAL Deck (23):
1

Kidney functions

filter
F/E & acid base
detoxify blood
help regulate BP
RBC production
Regulate vit. D & calcium formation

2


What happens when you only have one kidney?

Unilateral Renal Agenesis

3

what happens in unilateral renal agenesis?

the other kidney grows twice normal size.

pt. can't participate in contact sports.

check BP for life

4

What tests are used to measure kidney function?

GFR

5

oliguria

low output of urine

6

anuria

without urine

7

Why are the elderly so susceptible to UTIs

immobility,
obstruction,
constipation,
urine less acidic,
testes,
& catheters.

8

What signs and symptoms are associated with the elderly and UTIs?

Typical, absent, or vague. New onset confusion???

9

aka Nephrolithiasis. aka Renal Calculi.

kidney stones

10

what causes kidney stones?

Risk factors= gender, race, location, season, fluid intake, diet, occupation, & pH of urine.

11

What are the signs and symptoms associated with them?

Renal colic
N/V
Hematuria

12

What are major nursing interventions and responsibilities associated with caring for someone with kidney stones?

strain all urine. IVP or KUB x-ray. CT scan.

13

Treatment for kidney stones?

increase fluid intake,
change diet,
lithotripsy,
& lasers.

14

Causes include decreased blood flow to the kidneys, problems with structures i kidneys, and problems with elimination from kidneys.

Oliguria

Decreased GFR

Plasma creatine increased

reversible if dx/tx early

acute renal failure

15

diabetic kidney dx

largest cause of kidney failure in US

federal support for dialysis and transplants

irreversible loss of renal fxn

affects nearly all organ systems

azotemia

uremia

fatigue, N/V, pruirits & neuro changes

chronic renal failure

16

what are the 3 stages of chronic renal failure?

chronic renal insufficiency

chronic renal failure

end stage renal failure

17

symptoms of renal failure

anemia
cardiovascular dx
HTN

18

most common cause of AKI. Caused by impaired renal blood flow. Something wrong before the kidneys. poor perfusion. restore blood flow to the kidneys.

prerenal kidney failure

19

acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Something has happened to kidneys—ischemia. Hypotension r/t hypovolemia. Oliguria.

intrarenal kidney failure

20

urine formed but obstructed. BPH most common cause. Can occur in bladder, ureters, urethra(BPH). Bladder outflow causes RF only if 1 kidney damaged or only have 1 kidney. Goal: maintain life until renal fun has recovered.

postrenal kidney failure

21

what causes acute pyelonephritis?

abscesses renal pelvis or ureter

22

Sx of acute pyelonephritis?

fever
chills
flank groin pain


s/sx of UTI first

23

what do you use to rule out UTIs in children

unexplained fever