Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (140)
Fibers - because the body cannot break them down and use them
A condition that results from inability to digest the milk sugar lactose; characterized by bloating, gas, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea. Not the same as milk allergy, which is caused by an immune reaction to the protein in milk.
A lack of the enzyme required to digest the disaccharide lactose into its component monosaccharides (glucose and galactose).
A fermented milk created by adding Lactobacillus acidophilus and other bacteria that break down lactose to glucose and galactose, producing a sweet, lactose-free product.
The making of glucose from a noncarbohydrate source (like protein)
gluco = glucose
neo = new
genesis = making
The action of carbs (and fat) in providing energy that allows protein to be used for other purposes.
The metabolic products of the incomplete breakdown of fat when glucose is not available in the cells.
An undesirably high concentration of keytone bodies in the blood and urine.
The equilibrium in the body between acid and base concentrations.
Blood glucose homeostasis is regulated primarily by two hormones:
Insulin and glucagon
Moves glucose from the blood into the cells.
A hormone secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to (among other things) increased blood glucose concentration. The primary role of insulin is to control the transport of glucose from the bloodstream into the muscle and fat cells.
Brings glucose out of storage when necessary.
A hormone that is secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to low blood glucose concentration and elicits release of glucose from liver glycogen stores.
A hormone of the adrenal gland that modulates the stress response; formerly called adrenaline. The fight-or-flight hormone. When injected, epinephrine counteracts anaphylactic shock by opening the airways and maintaining heartbeat and blood pressure.
Two conditions from the failure of blood glucose regulation:
Diabetes or hypoglycemia.
A chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, usually resulting from insufficient or ineffective insulin.
The WHO and the FAO suggest restricting consumption of added sugars to:
Less than 10% of total energy
The two major sources of energy in the diet:
Carbs and fats
A reasonable daily intake of high-fiber foods is:
Less than 40 grams