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Spring 2014 > Nutrition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (140)
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121

Unavailable carbohydrates

Fibers - because the body cannot break them down and use them

122

Lactose intolerance

A condition that results from inability to digest the milk sugar lactose; characterized by bloating, gas, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea. Not the same as milk allergy, which is caused by an immune reaction to the protein in milk.

123

Lactase deficiency

A lack of the enzyme required to digest the disaccharide lactose into its component monosaccharides (glucose and galactose).

124

Kefir

A fermented milk created by adding Lactobacillus acidophilus and other bacteria that break down lactose to glucose and galactose, producing a sweet, lactose-free product.

125

Gluconeogenesis

The making of glucose from a noncarbohydrate source (like protein)

gluco = glucose
neo = new
genesis = making

126

Protein-sparing action

The action of carbs (and fat) in providing energy that allows protein to be used for other purposes.

127

Ketone bodies

The metabolic products of the incomplete breakdown of fat when glucose is not available in the cells.

128

Ketosis

An undesirably high concentration of keytone bodies in the blood and urine.

129

Acid-base balance

The equilibrium in the body between acid and base concentrations.

130

Blood glucose homeostasis is regulated primarily by two hormones:

Insulin and glucagon

131

Insulin

Moves glucose from the blood into the cells.

A hormone secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to (among other things) increased blood glucose concentration. The primary role of insulin is to control the transport of glucose from the bloodstream into the muscle and fat cells.

132

Glucagon

Brings glucose out of storage when necessary.

A hormone that is secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to low blood glucose concentration and elicits release of glucose from liver glycogen stores.

133

Epinephrine

A hormone of the adrenal gland that modulates the stress response; formerly called adrenaline. The fight-or-flight hormone. When injected, epinephrine counteracts anaphylactic shock by opening the airways and maintaining heartbeat and blood pressure.

134

Two conditions from the failure of blood glucose regulation:

Diabetes or hypoglycemia.

135

Diabetes

A chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, usually resulting from insufficient or ineffective insulin.

136

Fat

9 kcal/g

137

The WHO and the FAO suggest restricting consumption of added sugars to:

Less than 10% of total energy

138

The two major sources of energy in the diet:

Carbs and fats

139

A reasonable daily intake of high-fiber foods is:

Less than 40 grams

140

AMDR for carbs, fat, and protein:

Carbs: 45-65%
Fat: 20-35%
Protein: 10-35%