NUTRITION AND COMPLEX MOLECULES Flashcards Preview

#‼️BIOCHEMISTRY - PLE TOPNOTCH 2020 > NUTRITION AND COMPLEX MOLECULES > Flashcards

Flashcards in NUTRITION AND COMPLEX MOLECULES Deck (84)
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1

The oligosaccharides are usually attached to amino acids ____ (O-linked, synthesized in gOlgi bodies), or _______ (N-linked, synthesized in eNdoplasmic reticulum)

serine

asparagine

2

promotes thrombosis (platelet adhesion and aggregation) and vasoconstriction; produced by platelets

Thromboxane

3

VITAMIN B6: PYRIDOXINE is a coenzyme for what reactions?

o Transamination of amino acids

o Decarboxylation of glutamate and histidine

o ALA synthase

o Cystathionine synthase

o Synthesis of niacin from tryptophan

o Glycogen phosphorylase

4

active form of Vit D3

 

calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D)

5

o Thermic Effect of Food

o Increase in metabolic rate after a meal

10%: Diet-Induced Thermogenesis

6

Erythrocyte transaminase assay is a test for what?

Vitamin B6

7

Demineralized bones in adults 

Osteomalacia

8

Major source of enerygy during a 100-meter sprint

creatine phosphate (first 4–5 sec) and then anaerobic glycolysis, using muscle glycogen as the source of glucose

Type II (glycolytic) fibers are used predominantly

9

ACTIVE FORM OF VITAMIN B5: PANTOTHENIC ACID

Coenzyme A

10

Beriberi

VITAMIN B1: THIAMINE DEFICIENCY

11

o Partially denatured derivative of ferritin

o Predominates when tissue stores are high

Hemosiderin

12

MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSES

o Hunter syndrome

o Hurler syndrome

o Morquio syndrome

13

Leukotrienes are products of the enzyme _____

lipoxygenase

14

principal components of cartilage, found in sites of calcification, most abundant GAG

Chondroitin sulfate

15

Slow-reacting substances of anaphylaxis, potent constrictors of bronchial airway musculature (role in pathology of asthma)

• Leukotrienes C 4 , D 4 , and E 4

16

keeps ductus arteriosus open, used for erectile dysfunction

Prostaglandin E 1 (PGE 1 , alprostadil)

17

inhibits thrombosis, stimulates vasodilation; produces by endothelia cells

Prostacyclin

18

Unbranched polysaccharides consisting of repeating disaccharide units, alternating acidic sugar-amino sugar.

GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS (GAGs)

MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES

19

energy content of Carbohydrates, proteins, ketones

4 kcal/gram

20

What increases in alcohol metabolism?

NADH

21

Majority of energy is used for?

Resting (Basal) Metabolic Rate

22

first sign of vitamin A deficiency

loss of sensitivity to green light

23

Microsomal ethanol oxidation system requirement for Alternate pathway for ethanol metabolism

CYP2E1

24

Examples of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS / PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES

  • Phosphatidylcholine
  • Phosphatidylethanolamine
  • Phosphatidylserine
  • Phosphatidylinositol
  • Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine
  • Cardiolipin

25

results in vasoconstriction and contraction of smooth muscle, stimulates uterine contractions

Prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α ) - dinoprost, carboprost

26

o Energy expenditure at rest but not asleep

o Measured at 12 hours after the last meal

o Depends on weight, age and gender

60%: Resting (Basal) Metabolic Rate

27

Iron transport protein in plasma

Transferrin

28

o Alternate pathway for ethanol metabolism induced in chronic alcoholics

o Has a much higher Km for ethanol, utilized when ethanol concentrations are high

Microsomal ethanol oxidation system

29

Differentiate Kwashiorkor vs Marasmus

30

examples of GLYCOPROTEINS

  • Mucins
  • Transferrin, cerruloplasmin
  • HGC, TSH
  • Immunoglobulins