Flashcards in Nutrition Module 11: CVD - Lipoproteins Deck (55)
What 4 foods are flavonoids in?
What are 2 viscous fibers?
What is a genetic factor that increases responsiveness to dietary cholesterol?
What kind of FA is myristic FA?
How does the raise in LDL due to saturated FAs compare to the lowering in LDL due to polyunsaturated FAs?
Raise is bigger
What are polyunsaturated FAs susceptible to? What does this cause?
Peroxidation making them more atherogenic and causing a chain of free radical and lipid hydroperoxide synthesis
Which lipoproteins are most susceptible to peroxidation? Why?
LDLs because of high polyunsaturated FA content
Why do some people with excess iron stores have increased CVD and cancer risks?
Because the generation of most toxic free radicals is catalyzed by free Fe Copper
What happens to oxidized LDLs?
They are no longer recognized by their normal receptors but bind to the scavenger receptor on macrophages (which become foam cells) and other cells to promote atherosclerosis
What can explain why antioxidants in fruits and veggies are more effective than those in supplements in preventing disease? 1 example?
Because antioxidants are interdependent and complimentary
Eg: ascorbic acid regenerates alpha-tocopherol inhibiting it from becoming a pro-oxidant
What are normal HDL levels?
40 and above in men
50 and above in women
What are the 4 main functions of HDLs?
1. Transfer apoC-II and apoE to chylomicrons and VLDLs to regulate them
2. Take up cholesterol and phospholipids from VLDLs and LDLs
3. Remove cholesterol from tissues
What are the 2 types of factors influencing HDL levels?
1. Constitutional factors
2. Lifestyle factors
What are the 3 constitutional factors of HDL levels?
1. Sex: women have higher levels
3. Hormonal status: decrease after menopause
What are the 3 lifestyle factors of HDL levels?
3. Alcohol (moderate intake increases HDL)
What are the primary prevention guidelines for CVD?
1. Maintain healthy weight
2. Sat fat intake below 10% of calories and low trans fats
3. Cholesterol intake below 300 mg/day
4. 2 servings of fish/week
6. Whole grains and high fiber foods
7. Salt intake below 6g aka 2300 mg
8. Alcohol limits to 2 a day for men and 1 for women
9. Limited foods/drinks with added sugar
What are the 2 FAs with the greatest cholesterol-raising potential? Foods high in these?
Myristic and palmitic acid in butter, whole milk, cream and high-fat cheeses
Which affect serum cholesterol levels the most: types of FAs consumed or dietary cholesterol?
Types of FAs
Which have more unsaturated FAs: liquid or solid fats?
Which lipoprotein delivers dietary cholesterol to the liver?
What are the most reversible vascular lesions?
Can carbs increase LDL levels?
What will usually raise LDL levels?
What can raise VLDL levels?
Reduced fat intake because VLDLs are needed to transport TAGs and cholesterol within the body