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Flashcards in Obesity Deck (27):
1

Obese % by race

Women: Black- 54%
Hispanic: 32%
White: 30%

Children: black 24.5%
Hispanic: 22.1%

2

BMI

Kg/m2
In x .0254 = m
Lb \ 2.2 = kg

>25 overweight
>30 obese
>40 morbidly obese

3

Fat cell hypertrophy

Hyperplasia

- existing fat cells enlarge/ fill with fat

- total number cells increases:
> obesity during adolescence
> 40 + BMI

Women average 30lb gain 25-34 yrs old

4

Obesity deaths

280k- 325k premature deaths/yr
- lose 10-20 yrs off life
- adolescence obesity cause health risk issues even if obesity does not continue
- 4-10% increase in bw = 50% ^ risk coronary disease

5

Android obesity

Gyroid obesity

- abdominal gain
> coronary disease, HPB, diabetes

- hip, thigh, butt - lower risk
(Abdominal fat enters blood stream easier)

6

Body fat distribution pattern:
WHR

WG

- waist at smallest point (near navel) divided by hip at largest point
> .80 (w) or .95 (m) = android (bad)

W> 30in - 2x more likely heart disease
M > 40in, W > 35 - elevated risk profile

7

Active overeating

Passive overeating

- cognitive drive to over consume (in or external)
> defect in satiety/ appetite regulation

- normal food intake becomes excessive because of sedentary lifestyle

8

Thermogenic requirements by macro

Fat- 0-2%
Protein- 25-30%
Carb- 6-8%

Lower calorie with higher protein- weight loss, lean muscle, cardiac health

9

Volumetrics

- Huge portion size, better priced than smaller size, too many calories for single meal
- option of larger meal makes people consume 432 more calories a day

10

Basal metabolic rate
BMR

- Energy required for living- 60-70% daily expenditure
- food- 10%
Activity/ exercise- 15-30%

*key to fighting obesity- NEAT - spontaneous physical activity (park further, take stairs, stand at desk, walking meeting)

11

NEAT

(Larger person can burn extra 350 calories due to weight if adopt active NEAT
- walking meeting, sand desk,, 15min walk once get home/after eat/ after school, stairs

12

Leptin

- cytokine hormone- secreted by adipose tissue
- appetite regulator (increase in fat > release Leptin > trigger hypothalamus > reduce appetite
- transport impaired in obese

13

Cholecystokinin

- secreted in duodenum + jejunum
- slows emptying of stomach - satiety signals to hypothalamus
- possible appetite suppressing supplement

14

Ghrelin

- produced in stomach- stimulates appetite
- stimulates hGH
- inverse relation with body weight

15

Peptide yy

- hormone released from colon/rectum proportionate to calories consumed
- acts on hypothalamus to suppress appetite
- on pancreas to excrete exocrine secretion of digestive juices
- on gallbladder to release bile
- more slowly than ckk more rapid than Leptin
- obesity limits excretion

16

Genetic factors obesity

-25% variation in body weight is genetic

-severe hormone/ gene disorder (monogenic)
Or
- several genetic variations w/ risk environment (polygenic)
-50+ genes/polymorphisms affect food intake/ energy expenditure/ food metabolism

17

Genetic factors effects

Environmental

- affect CNS
Or
- peripherally through adipose tissue

- low income neighborhood- grocery store- fast food/ gas station
- supermarkets lower obesity
- fast food is 65% more dense, lower nutrient, larger portion
- people consume by package, not serving

18

Obesogenic

An environment that tends to generate or create a state of obesity
1960- 13.3% obese adults, 4.4% kids
2010- 35.7%, 16.9%

19

type protein

- quality varies- meat/soy = complete
> vege = incomplete
-timing- whey- liquid remaining after milk curdled/strained, rapidly digested
-casein- gives milk white color (majority of milk) slowly digested

20

fats and sport nutrition

- source energy, fat-soluble vitamins, essential fatty acids, 20-25% total kcal
> no evidence of better performance under 15%

21

pre-exercise fueling

- optimize glucose availability + glycogen stores- provide fuel needed for performance
- day of- eat about 4-6hrs prior, takes 4 hours for gastro/digestion/and glycogen storage
- snack 30-60min prior (50 carb, 5-10g protein, low-no fat/fiber)

22

fuel during exercise

-provide w/ essential nutrients maintain glucose levels
exercise lasting :
-less than 1 hr, good on existing stores, over 1 hr, glucose levels dwindle, 1-3hrs stores depleted, then blood glucose used
-consume 30-60g carb/hr training (slowly over 15-20min intervals

23

post exercise replenish

-replenish glycogen + facilitate muscle repair
> necessary for vigorous training/ multiple sessions a day
> within 30 min after exercise (1.5g/kg)
> high carb meal w/in 2 hrs

24

exercise hydration

pre hydration

- euhydration- normal body water content (light yellow tinge)
- begin hydration 4 hrs prior slowly consume 5-7ml/kg
> if no urine, or dark-drink additional 3-5ml/kg
(2 hrs prior460-1150mg/L sodium stimulate thirst/retain fluid if having trouble)

25

hydration during exercise

-prevent loss performance
-1:1 fluid loss/replace (avoid loss greater than 2% bw)
> 8-16oz/hr
-drinks with sodium during prolonged exercise (>2hrs)
-carb containing drinks >1hr exercise
>6-8% of drink (more can cause gastric issue)

26

post hydration

-correct imbalance- consume water/carb/electrolyte, if more than 12 hrs between event, normal eating drinking will suffice
> if need quickly-1.5L/kg lost weight (16-24oz/lb lost)
-2hrs prior-500-600ml (17-20oz)
-10-20min during- 7-10oz

27

protein and sports nutrition

avg .8-1.0g/kg (.5-.8g/lb) + or - depending on goals
-10-35% total kcal