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Flashcards in Macros Deck (33):
1

Monosaccharides

Glucose-predominant sugar
Fructose- fruit/ sweetest
Galactose- lactose (milk)
- maltose, sucrose(glucose +fructose) (table)
Mono usually joined into di/olgi/poly

2

Types of Sucrose

-Raw, granulated, brown, powdered (all sucrose)
-Honey is natural sucrose (mix of fruc/gluc/suc)
-corn sweeteners (corn syrup) glucose w/ maltose
- sorbitol- glucose natural is some berries, lower GI than sugar

3

Insoluble fiber

-low viscosity
-Cellulose (whole wheat, bran, vege)
-hemicellulose (whole grain, bran)
-lignin (vege, wheat, fruit w/ edible seeds)
-increase fecal bulk, laxative effect
25-35g needed

4

Non caloric sweeteners

-Calorie free because body cant metabolize
-Aspartame- equal, nutrasweet
-AcesulfameK- sunnet, sweetone
Saccharin
-Sucralose-Splenda
-neotame
-stevia- natural sugar-30x more sweet, no affect on blood sugar
(all approved in US, cancer study disproved

5

Oligo and poly

-Oligo-3-10 simple sugars
- fructooligo - mostly indigestible, may relieve constipation, improve tri levels
Polysac- long chain sugar molecule
- glycogen- animal based
- starch- plant based
> only poly fully digestible

6

Glycemic index

-Ranks carbs based on blood glucose response
- high = fast, low = slow

7

Glycogen
Starch

-Most glycogen depleted before meat enters food supply
-starch - amylase small linear chain
amylopectin
> take longer to digest
- cellulose, hemi, lignin, guns, pectin
> indigestible fibers

8

Fiber

- Dietary fiber- naturally in plant
- functional fiber- isolated fibers added to food products
- 'total fiber'

9

Soluble fiber

High viscosity fiber
- gum (oats, legumes, barley)
- pectin (apples, citrus, strawberry, carrot)
- psyllium seeds
- slow gastric emptying (from stomach to intestine)
- increase fullness, slow sugar release
- interferes w/ absorption fat + cholesterol (binds to and excretes)

10

Metabolism and storage

- glucose > cell > O2 + H2O = release ATP
Or
- carb/glucose > liver+muscle as glycogen (90g stored liver, 150g+ in muscle. Can increase 5x with training.)
- excess carbs turn to fat over time

11

Fat
Healthy
Function
Bad

- Mono and poly = healthy
- insulation, cell structure, nerve transmission, vitamin absorption, hormone production
- saturated + trans fat - clog arteries, cardiac/stroke

12

Fat structure

Fatty acid

Hydrogen, carbon, oxygen
- insoluble in water

Long hydrogen chains w/ even # carbons varying saturation of hydrogen

13

Saturated fat

- Solid at room temp
- Very stable
- red meat, full fat dairy, tropical oils (coconut)
- LDL- bad cholesterol
- no dbl bond between carbons

14

Unsaturated fatty acids

- 1 or more double bonds
- liquid at room temp, unstable, susceptible to oxidative damage w/ short lifespan

15

Monounsat fatty acids

Polyunsat fatty acids

- 1 dbl bond
- HDL- good cholesterol breaks down plaque buildup
- olive, canola, peanut oils

-polyunsat
2+ dbl bonds
- corn, safflower, soybean oils, cold water fish

16

Essential fatty acids

-body cannot produce
- Polyunsat must come from diet
- omega 3 (linolenic) or omega 6 (linoleic)
-3 forms omega
- ALA (plant) EPA/DHA (egg yolk, cold water fish, shellfish
- reduce blood clotting, dilate blood vessels, reduce inflammation, eye and brain development/function, reduce cholesterol

17

Omega 3

AI for ALA- 1.1g/d (10% from EPA/DHA) - suggested to up to 250-500mg

18

Omega 6

- Flaxseed, canola, soybean oils, green leafy veg
- increase blood clotting, inflammation
> some needed
5-10% of calories should come from omega 6

19

Triglyceride

Trans fat

3 FA's joined to a glycerol
> chemical form
Of most fats in food and body

Trans
Partially hydrogenated oil (man made)
> Tried to make unsat solid at room temp- increasing shelf life, by breaking double bond and adding hydrogen molecule. Turned out worse that sat fat

20

Phospholipids

- lecithin, sphingomyelin
> similar to tri's
> water soluble at one end, insoluble at other
- component of HDL removes plaque
- liver, egg yolk, soybeans, peanuts, legumes, spinach, wheat germ, animal products

21

Cholesterol (1)

- fat like, waxy, 4 ring steroid structure
Important to cell membrane function, bike acid for fat absorption, metabolize fat soluble vitamins (a d e k), make vitamin D, estrogen, testosterone
- sat fat converted to cholesterol- main cause hypochesterolemia (high cholesterol)

22

Cholesterol 2

Cholesterol combined with water soluble protein carrier in blood stream can turn to LDL (plaque). HDL removes send back to liver to be broken and excreted,
- body made cholesterol - liver > cell
- Consumed- small intestine > liver + fat

23

Carbs
Energy:
Mono

Primary energy
Only sources for brain cells
Store energy/ fiber improves digestion and cholesterol
Mono: sugar-carbon w/ water attached

24

Protein function

-Major structural component of muscle, brain, nervous system, blood, skin, hair
- transport mechanism for iron, vitamins, minerals, fats, oxygen, acid-base, fluid balance
- form enzymes that speed up chemical reactions and create antibodies to fight infection

25

Protein structure

- Amino acids- carb w/ extra nitrogen- amino group group, sometimes also sulfur
- protein forms when aminos join trough peptide bonds
- complete protein, linear chain of aminos (3D peptide)

26

Amino acids
Essential
Nonessential
Protein quality
Complete/incomplete

-e cannot be made by body
- non can be made
- amino composition, digerati ilium, bioavailability
- animal products contain all essential aminos (+ soy and quinoa)
- plants are incomplete

27

Protein metabolism and storage

- Constant breakdown and regeneration of body's cells
- immediate supplier comes from amino pool (I heated and recycled aminos)
- body does not store protein
- continuous recycle of aminos through removal/addition of nitrogen allows body to regulate

28

Protein balance

- measured in nitrogen balance (consumed:excreted, ideally 1:1)
- negative = catabolic
- positive = anabolic

29

Carb digestion

- carb digestion begins with saliva > a-amylase enzyme cleaves large poly into olgi or di > down throat to esophagus > peristalsis (throat muscle) push food to stomach > pass through stomach untouched into small intestine (where most absorption/digestion takes place) > pancreatic juices + bile from liver in duodenum (1st foot of S I) > food, now called chyme, passes to 2nd and 3rd portion of S I (jejunum and ilium (majority absorption) > lactase breaks down milk sugar, maltase by a-dextrinase, sucrose by trehalase into monosac > mono absorbs through brush border with villi projections > sugar in blood stream > to liver and to cells by insulin

30

Protein digestion

- protein must lose shape (denaturation) to be digested
- digestion begins in stomach; once body anticipates eating stomach releases gastrin > stimulates stomach to release hydrochloric acid > causes denaturation and release of pepsin > pepsin breaks peptide bonds to shorten chains > stomach mixes and churns to release in small amts to SI over 1-4hrs > pancreas releases enzymes into S I > activates trypsin breaking protein into single-triple aminos. Di and tri aminos absorbed into intestinal epithelial cells > cleaved into single aminos > bloodstream > liver > liver removes nitrogen group (deamination- urea) or nitrogen moved to another compound (transamination - catabolic process)

31

Fat digestion

- lingual lipase begins process in mouth cleaving into smaller chains > to stomach for further breakdown from gastric lipase > mix and churn in stomach further breaks down into droplets for easier digestion > fat in S I triggers cholecystokinin > stimulates release gastric inhibitory peptide and secretin > decreases gut movement and slows digestion > S I bile acid emulsifies lipids > pancreatic lipase breaks down into FAs, cholesterol, lysolecithin > products of digestion and vitamins carried by micelles to Intestinal cells, diffuse across membrane and converted back to tri, chol > medium chains pass into portal circulation, long chains join apoprotein (chylomicron) > lymphatic system pass through thoracic duct > FAs in chylomicron delivered to working cells > lipoprotein lipase cleaves off FA > used in FA oxidation for energy > FA not used > liver > adipose tissue

32

Waste

- leftover in S I > ileocecal valve > 5 ft large intestine (few minerals and significant water reabsorption) making feces solid
- food can stay in L I hrs to days
Mouth > anus = 18-72 hrs
- bowel movement 3x/d - 1x/3d

33

Macros

- magic wands
Enable body to produce enzymes, hormones, and other substances necessary for proper growth and development