Vitamins/minerals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Vitamins/minerals Deck (21):
1

Water soluble vitamins

Cofactor

Energy metabolism

- Solubility in water/absorption
- make enzymes work in metabolism
-water soluble cannot be stored (except B12, B6)
- thiamin, B1, riboflavin, B2, niacin B3, pantothenic acid B5 are necessary for metabolism (unlock energy in food)

2

Thiamin B1 (ws)


Riboflavin B2

- carb metabolism, nerve function
- deficiency- loss appetite, weight, cardiac and nerve function, loss feeling hands/feet

- carb, amino, lipid metabolism, antioxidant protection
- in meat, dairy, green leafy veg
- deficiency- eye problems, soreness/burning mouth, tongue, lips

3

Niacin B3 (ws)


Pantothenic acid B5

- cofactor for over 200 enzymes in carb/amino/ FA metabolism
- in lean muscle, poultry, fish, yeast
- deficiency - muscle weakness, anorexia, indigestion, skin abnormality

- in all plant/animal tissue
- component coenzyme A + acyl carrier protein
- metabolism of FA/ amino/ carb/ protein function

4

Perydoxine B6 (ws)


Folic acid B9

- protein metabolism, red blood cell production, glycogenolysis (stored glycogen broken to glucose), protein tryptophan to niacin, neuro formation, immune function
- meat, whole grain, nuts (^bioavailability in animal products)

-plant foliage
- production DNA, red+white cells, neurotransmitters, metabolize aminos
- lost during cooking, spinabifida, megaloblastic anemia, poor growth

5

Cobalamin B12 (ws)


Biotin B7

- normal function of cells, gastrin tract, bone marrow, nervous tissue
- clam, oyster, milk, cheese, muscle meat, fish, livery, kidney
- elderly decreased absorption
- megaloblastic anemia, neurologic dysfunction, numbness/burning, weak legs

-ultimate helper vitamin, lend carboxyl group to any 4 metabolic enzymes, also helps B12, 5, 9
- milk, liver, yolk, shrooms, cauliflower

6

Vitamin C (ws)

Antioxidant
- production collagen, iron absorption, antibodies, steroid/nerve/hormone production
- citrus, green leafy
- impaired healing, weak bones/cartilage/teeth

7

Vitamin

Provitamins

- organic non caloric, necessary or growth
- must be consumed (except for K (from biotin) and D (sun)

provitamin
- inactive vitamin-enzymes in body activate
-13 vitamins either water (B's and C)
or fat soluble (A D E K)

8

Fat soluble vitamins


A/ beta-carotene

- found in fat containing foods
- stored in liver or adipose till needed
- increase risk of toxicity, limits deficiency

- vision, growth development, maintain epithelial tissue/bones/teeth/immune, reproduction
-animal products, liver, milk, eggs, dark greens
-yellow/orange vege/fruit - A carotenoids (deeper color=more)
- deficiency- blindness/infection
- excess- crack skin + mucous membrane, headache, nausea, decrease mineral absorption

9

Vit D


E

- calcium * phosphorous absorption + balance
- 10-15min 2x/wk body can produce enough
- less- osteomalacia (weak bones), muscle weakness, increase risk fracture, osteoporosis, rickets
-excess- nausea, calcification kidney/heart/lungs/eardrum

- alpha-tocopherol - metabolism of all cells
- protect vs oxidative stress - aging, cancer, diabetes, cardio disease
- only in plants - oils, whole grains, greens, nuts, seeds
- easily destroyed by heat, oxygen

10

Vit K

-produced from bacteria in colon, dark greens
-blood clotting, strong bones
-over/ under affects clotting

11

Minerals

- mineral absorption impaired when bound to other molecules
- high bioavailability (>40%) sodium, potassium, chloride, iodine, fluoride
- low (1-10%) iron, zinc, chromium, manganese
-minerals can interfere with other minerals
-iron decreases zinc, zinc decreases copper, calcium decreases manganese, zinc, iron

12

Macro/micro minerals

Macro- calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, potassium (>100mg/d)
Micro- iron, iodine, selenium, zinc, etc

13

Calcium


Phosphorous

- most abundant- mineralization bones/teeth, muscle contraction, clotting, BP, immune
- dairy, fish w/ bone, green leafy, legumes
-decrease peak bone mass/bone str, osteomalacia, osteopenia, osteoporosis
- excess-calcification of soft tissues, constipation

- second most abundant- mineralization bones/teeth, filter kidneys, energy by metabolizing carbs/protein/ fat, growth/ maintenance/repair tissues and cells, DNA, balance D, calcium, iodine, magnesium, zinc
- meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk
- less- neural/skeletal abnormalities
-excess- interfere with calcium

14

antioxidants

A, C, E, Selenium
- cells damaged from chronic O2 exposure (like metal/rust). oxidation > aging > cancer
-antioxidants prevent/ repair aging (still disputed). known that high fruit/ veg diet limits chronic disease- but how?
> fiber, anti's, photos, monounsats, B's, folic acid

15

water %'s loss
total body %
why need water

- 10% loss= severe disorder, 20% loss= death. adults survive 10 days, kids 5 days
% loss- .5 = thirst, 3= impaired performance/ decreased blood volume, 5= difficulty concentrate, 6= failure regulate body temp, 10= spasms, delirium
-50-70% body is water

-regulating body temp, protect vital organs, nutrient absorption, biochem reactions, adequate blood volume

16

water volume

- food and beverage, sweat, urine, feces, metabolism, breathing
- if loss not balanced, body will retain water, urine becomes more concentrated- dehydrated (heat exhaustion, stroke)
-excess= hyponatremia- water/sodium ratio elevated
>excess water can leak into brain tissue

17

heat stroke

exertional hyponatremia

-high intensity, humid conditions, fluid intake, poor fitness level, poor heat acclimation, dehydration

-excessive intake w/ low sodium fluids during prolonged endurance exercise/ activities- marathon- predictor= weight gain during exercise

18

iodine

selenium

zinc

-stored in thyroid- growth+metabolism
-seafood, iodized salt
-goiter, baby mental retardation

-antioxidant in plants
-less- heart disease, hypothyroidism, immune
-excess- selonosis- hair loss, fatigue, garlic breath, nerve damage

-zinc- activity of enzymes, immune, wound healing, strengthen senses, growth development, DNA
-fish, poultry, milk products, seafood
- less- delayed healing, immune
-excess- decreased HDL and copper + iron efficiency

19

sulfur

iron

-component of aminos cysteine, methionine, vitamins thiamin, biotin, pantothenic acid, anticoagulant heparin
-meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dry beans, broccoli, cauliflower
-excess- decreased bone mineralization

-production hemoglobin, myoglobin, regulates cell growth, differentiation, storable
-liver, oyster, seafood, kidney, heart, lean meat, poultry, fish
-fatigue, decreased performance, immune
- excess liver toxicity, death

20

magnesium

- bone mineralization, protein production, muscle contraction, nerve conduction, enzyme function, healthy teeth
- nuts, legumes whole grains, dark leafy greens, milk
-high intakes of calcium, protein, vit D and alcohol increase requirement
-heart arrhythmia, myocardial infarction
-excess- prevent calcification

21

sodium, potassium, chloride

-electrolytes-ions-extremely important for normal cellular function
-water balance/ distribution, osmotic equilibrium (ions in cells), acid-base balance, intra/extracellular differentials
-dehydration/ hyponatremia (low electrolyte concentration from over hydration)
-sodium excess (+ hyponatremia) common
> high sodium increases calcium loss
> low potassium- not enough fruit/ veg- hypertension/ osteoporosis