Flashcards in Ordination Bible Exam Deck (40):
What book omits reference to God by name? Why is it in the canon?
While not mentioning God by name, his sovereignty over history and his special rule over his elect people is revealed and even strongly argued for through the clever literary technique of failing to mention to most obvious of main characters – God. The series of fortunate events leading up to the rescue of the Jews cannot be chalked up to merely ‘luck’ or ‘fate’, even as God’s presence appears hidden (i.e. he isn’t named in the story).
List the books of “The Former Prophets.”
Joshua, Judges, 1 & 2 Samuel, & 1 & 2 Kings
List and describe 3 Messianic Psalms.
Psalm 2: the nations plot against the Lord's anointed in vain, who will rule them with an iron scepter. They should kiss the son lest he be angry, and all who take refuge in him will be blessed. He will Give him the nations as an inheritance. You are my son, today I have begotten you - quoted in Hebrews 1 & 5
Psalm 8: The Lord's name is excellent - his glory is higher than the heavens and he has ordained praise out of the mouth of babies. He has set the son of man over all that he has made. Quoted in Hebrews 2
Psalm 22: My god my god, why have you forsaken me? A cry of help from one who is afflicted, and a reminder that God is not far from those who call on him. Quoted in Hebrews 2 'I will declare your name to my brethren...' Quoted in Matt 27 casting lots for my clothes
What abuses in the Corinthian church did Paul address in his first letter to that group?
Divisions/Party spirit - 'Iam of Paul' 'I am of apollos' etc.
A man having his father's wife and it being accepted by the church
Believers suing brothers in court
Eating food sacrificed to idols/abusing the weaker brother's conscience
Taking the Lords Supper with divisions among the church
Some were saying there is no resurrection of the dead
Discuss the “Documentary Hypothesis”.
Julius Wellhausen – approaches the authorship of Torah from a completely secular, non-supernatural point of view. Saw four distinct, complete works as sources for Torah that went through a series of redactors, eventually ending up with text that we have today. Sought to get back to the original sources.
J – Yahwist – emphasis on personal visits of God, anthropomorphic descriptions, theology of history, God is known through his actions. Use of YHWH prior to Gen 3
E – Elohist – God is more impersonal, speaks through prophets, angels, dreams. Begins w/ Abraham
D – addressing Babylonian exiles. Emphasis on Deuteronomic law. Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Kings
P – Emphasis on ritual and ceremony. Covenant. God’s presence mediated by high priest, not king
What is the difference between a “historical-critical” approach to the Bible, and the “historical-grammatical” approach?
Historical-critical approach assumes that reason alone is the source of knowledge, all texts, including the Bible, are open to suspicion and the Biblical texts should be treated like any other text. It seeks to get back to the original meaning of the text, sometimes by deconstructing the text as we have it to get back to a ‘purer’ textual form.
Grammatical-historical approach assumes that the Biblical texts in the original language are true revelation from God, and seeks to understand the original intended meaning of the author in their context.
Discuss the authorship of Isaiah; what are the issues at stake here.
Traditional approach: Isaiah, son of Amoz, 8th century prophet, confidant of Hezekiah, is author of entire book. Lived in Jerusalem at least until death of Sennacherib. Common view until 1800s.
Critical approach: 1-39 and 40-66 have different authors – Isaiah and Deutero-Isaiah. 3 reasons:
1. Historical situation – 1-39 pre-exile; 40-66 assumes exile has happened and anticipates a return
2. Theological – 1-39: God’s majesty, Davidic kingship, messiah. 40-66: God’s universal dominion, priests, levites, princes, ‘servant of the Lord’.
3. Language – hard to pin down – second half seen as more lyrical, passionate, hymnic.
Issues at stake: The assumption that God revealed the future to his prophets – an exilic audience and knowledge of the exile does not require a contemporary author – the nature of revelation and prophecy was that God revealed was would happen later. New Testament attribution of the book to Isaiah – taken at face-value this doesn’t eliminate the possibility of multiple authors, just as ascribing Moses as author of Deut doesn’t require that he wrote Deut 34. It does require us to view Isaiah as a unity. As does the…Superscription in Isaiah 1:1 – as given to us, the canonical book would have us see it as the work of Isaiah son of Amoz
Give a broad outline of Genesis (commenting on the historicity of the events in the first 3 chapters) with a brief description of the contents of each section.
4 – Cain & Abel
5 – Adam to Noah
6-9 – Flood
10 – Nations after the flood
11 – Babel
God created the world of nothing. Adam and Eve were real people, created by God from the dust of the earth. The events of creation are recounted using 6 days as a literary framework
Give a brief exposition of one of the Psalms.
Psalm 1 describes the ideal human – one who delights in knowing God, and who lives all of life before God’s face. The word of God is the source of their life. Those who rebel against God will not stand his judgment.
Jesus fulfills this psalm as the ideal human, and in himself creates a new humanity for whom this ideal of intimate, organic connection to God is reality. Those who choose to disconnect from God will not stand God’s judgment. Those who are united to Jesus by faith will find that their way is watched over.
How does Matthew organize his gospel?
Birth – 1-2
Passion & Resurrection 26-28
Sermon on Mount 5-7
Mission – 10
Kingdom Parables – 13
Life in community – 18
Olivet Discourse 23-25
“From that time on, Jesus began to…” in 4 and 16
4-16 Proclamation of the Kingdom
16-28 Necessity of the Passion
What is the main message of Colossians and the flow of Paul’s argument?
The message of Colossians combats the Colossian heresy, which was a ‘deceptive philosphy’ of a jewish-gnosticising type, according to Guthrie. It had elements that denied both the full humanity and the full deity of Christ, as well as an emphasis on rule-keeping in terms of Jewish observances and ascetic tendencies. The message is centered on the supremacy and sufficiency of Christ in opposition to all other powers and attempts at gaining salvation. Christ is supreme over all of creation and over the church.
Believers must not be confused by false pieties that mix true faith with false religions or philosophies.
Christ is completely sufficient to bring the fullness and newness of life to believers.
Christians must live in dependence on Christ, not on any other power.
1:1- 14: Greeting and thanksgiving
1:15-2:7 – The Supremacy and Sufficiency of Christ (Orthodoxy)
2:8-22 – Confronting those who deny Christ’s sufficiency (Heterodoxy)
3:1-4:6 – The Sufficiency of Christ Experienced in Life (Orthopraxy)
4:7-18 – Final greetings
What false teaching comes out of a poor interpretation of 1st John; describe the different elements of a correct interpretation that would refute such teaching?
Gnosticism – belief that the material world is evil and should be shunned while the spiritual world above is good and should be embraced. Ascetic practices help one flee this present lower world and attain gnosis – knowledge or enlightenment.
The Word of Life was made manifest and touched w/ our hands – 1:1.
You already have knowledge NOW in the Holy One – you don’t work to attain knowledge, you let your deeds reflect the knowledge you’ve been given in Christ. You don’t need anyone to teach you new knowledge apart from what you learned from Christ. 2:20ff
Every Spirit that confesses Jesus has come in the flesh is from God – 4:1ff
Believing in the son of God who came in the flesh brings eternal life – 5:13
Briefly trace the highlights of the Covenant of Grace through the Old and New Testament.
Prefigured in the promise to Eve that her seed would crush the serpent’s head (Gen 3). The covenant with Noah – never again will the ground be cursed (Gen 8) and never again will the waters destroy all life – rainbow as the sign (Gen 9) – beginning to reverse the curse and rescue humanity. Covenant with Abraham – Great nation, bless you, all nations blessed through you (Gen 12). Giving a people and an inheritance – God walking through animals as confirmation (Gen 15). I will be their God – circumcision as the sign of the covenant (Gen 17). Giving of the ram in exchange for Isaac – covenant reaffirmed (Gen 22). Passover (gen 12) Mosaic Covenant (Ex. 20) David – establishment of his throne forever. I will be his father, he will be my son (2 Sam 7). Jeremiah 31 – New covenant foretold – I will put my law on their minds, write it on their hearts, I will be their God, they will be my people (Jer 31). New Covenant in Christ’s blood established, sign & seal of Lord’s supper given – (Matt 26). The death of Jesus confirms and establishes the covenant – (Matt 27 & other gospels). Sign and seal of Baptism confirming entry into the covenant people is through faith-union with Jesus – (Matt 28 & Acts 2). Holy Spirit comes as the New Covenant gift/blessing (Acts 2). Covenant of Grace perfected in Christ, that all might partake of its fullness together in him (Heb 11). Consummation of the new Covenant with the return of Christ (Rev 22)
Explain some of the Old Testament types of Christ.
Ram in the thicket – Gen 22
David – man after God’s own heart (1 Sam 13:14, Acts 13:22) King who rules God's people in righteousness.
Moveable Rock that gave the Israelites water in the dessert – Ex 17, 1 Cor 10:4
Servant of the Lord from Isaiah – Is 42 – Spirit on him, he will not shout or cry out, establish justice on the earth
The two goats from Lev 16 – one to be slaughtered, one to be sent off into the wilderness
Adam – the first man, federal head, all die in him, (Gen 1-3; 1 Cor 15)
Melchizedek – Gen 14, Heb 7
Moses – Deut 18:15 – prophet like Moses
Manna - bread from heaven John 6
Passover - Ex 12
Challenging and encouraging a professed believer who is struggling to overcome a “besetting” or entrenched sin, and directing him to the way of spiritual growth.
1 Cor 10:13
Rom 8:1 – there is therefore now no condemnation…
Rom 8:15 – We have not received a spirit that makes us slaves again to fear, but Spirit of sonship, crying Abba Father
2 Tim 1:7 – God did not give us a spirit of timidity but a spirit of power
Rom 7 - I do what I do not want to do - the war b/w flesh and spirit
Instructing a young couple in preparation for marriage
Eph 5 – mutual submission, wives submit to husbands, husbands lay down lives, two become one, love as love yourself
Genesis 1-2 – Each made for the other, leave & cleave, created male & female in God’s image
Col 3 – submit, don’t be harsh
Enlightening and strengthening a professed believer in midst of a dark or difficult providence
Isaiah 43 – fear not, I have redeemed you, you are mine. Flames will not burn you, water won’t overwhelm you
Psalm 46 – God is our refuge, ever present help in trouble, though mountains give way we will not fear. There is a river who’s streams make glad the city of God.
Job - the whole book
Joseph Genesis 37-40
Training ruling elder and deacon candidates with respect to the qualifications and duties of their respective offices.
Deacons – Acts 6, Widows being overlooked, not right for apostles to neglect ministry of the word and prayer, men full of faith and H.S. word of God spread as a result. 1 Tim 3 – husband of 1, manage household, serving well gains excellent standing and assurance of faith
Elders – 1 Tim 3 – desire a noble task, above reproach, 1 wife, self-controlled, able to teach, hospitable, not violent, not lover of money, not quarrelsome. Taking care of God’s household. Good reputation. Titus 1 – hold firmly to gospel – encourage others w/ sound doctrine and refute adversaries. 2 Cor 4-5 – Therefore, since through God’s mercy we have this ministry…
Encouraging and comforting a professed believer facing death
1 Cor 15 – Body sown perishable, raised imperishable, raised in glory, raised in power.
Psalm 46 – There is a river whose streams make glad the city of God
Rev 21 – Now the dwelling of God is with men. He will wipe every tear from their eye. There will be no more death, mourning, crying, or pain. The old order has passed away.
Rom 8 – Nothing can separate us from the love of God that is in Christ Jesus – not even death.
John 14 - I go to prepare a place for you - in my father's house are many rooms...
What is the oldest book in the Bible?
Who were the major judges?
Othniel, Ehud, Deborah, Gideon, Jepthah, Samson
Identify the pre-exilic prophets and the post-exilic prophets
Pre-exilic - Isaiah, Jeremiah, Hosea, Amos, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah
Exilic - Daniel, Ezekiel
Post-exilic - Obadiah, Joel, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
List three persons who were prophets or prophetesses who did not write a book of the Bible
Nathan, Elijah, Elisha, Huldah
Explain what the following sentence means and why it is crucial to “handling accurately the word of truth”: The Scriptures must be read historically, organically, and practically.
To handle the Word of Truth (Scripture) accurately we need to read it with 3 perspectives.
1. Historical. The Scriptures were written at a real time in our history. Although not all Scripture is written as a history narrative it still brings with it the culture, ideas and world-view of its day. To bring proper understanding of Scripture we need to have a proper perspective of when it was written and what was happening in the world and the region of the time period it was written.
2. Organically. In addition to reading the Scripture historically we also have to read it in its context. Both in the immediate context of the book itself but also in the greater context of the whole. There are 66 books each with its own purpose, however each book lies within the unity of the larger context of the whole. We have to learn to read the Biblical narrative as participants within the story not just outside observers. Not just a story for us but a story about us, where the living God meets us and speaks to us.
3. Practically. The Scripture is profitable for ‘Teaching Rebuking correcting and training in righteousness. We need to be able to ask ourselves as we read, How does the passage practically relate to me in terms of faith, repentance and holy living.
What is the difference between “higher criticism” and “lower criticism”?
Higher Criticism:/Historical Criticism Deals with age, authorship, genuineness. Traces origin, preservation and integrity. Elevates reason of man. It is mostly destructive as it calls into question authorship and canonical authenticity, but if done properly..........
Lower Criticism:/textual criticism - Concerned with the recovery of the original texts. Finding the exact words of the original texts. Method to gather ancient texts to render the true reading of each passage.
Explain the typology of the book of Jonah
Jonah may be seen as a type of Christ in a few ways.
Mission - to call Ninevah to repentance as Christ calls mankind to repentance.
Sacrifice - Jonah willing to sacrifice himself for the salvation of his shipmates - Jesus sacrifice for the elect.
Death/entombment - Jonah swallowed by the fish, entombed there. Jesus swallowed by death and placed in a tomb.
Resurrection - ON the 3rd day, Jonah was “resurrected” from the belly of the fish. - Christ was resurrected on the 3rd day.
40 days - Jonah preached that Ninevah would be destroyed in 40 days unless the people repented. Jesus taught the 40 days prior to his ascension.
What is the “synoptic problem” and how is it solved? With respect to the four-fold gospel, enumerate some key similarities and describe the unique focus of each writer.
Synoptic problem - While having different purposes, Matthew, Mark and Luke view the life of Christ in a common way and share a common story.However, there are differences in the gospel narratives that must be accounted for. These differences pose the ‘Synoptic Problem.’ The problem can be solved
Solved - For me, much of it is a non-issue. I don't really care if Luke borrowed from Mark, for instance. What I think is of concern is that the books were first century documents, and they were real works of literature written by authors, instead of just redactors. Much of the synoptic problem is an attempt to use source and redaction criticism on the gospels, and while it may be helpful in some ways, in the end these critics are more concerned with the development of a text (how Luke used Q and Mark, etc) rather than the text in its final form as a work of literature. So for me, the solution is to look at literary techniques that examine the book in its final form. You might mention Richard Bauckham, who has written a lot opposing some of the more traditional higher critical approaches to the gospels.
Give a broad outline of Exodus with a brief description of the contents of each section.
1. Introduction- Setting the Scene (ex. 1-2)
Growth of Israel into a nation. Has become a threat to Pharoah and God puts Moses in Pharoah’s court.
2. God calls and Commissions Moses (2-7)
Moses flees Egypt after committing murder. There in the desert God speaks to Moses through the burning bush, gives him His name (Yahweh) ‘I am’ and calls Moses to deliver His people out of the hand of Pharoah.
3. The Plagues (7-11)
Moses demands Israel’s release and performs works of power which Pharoah’s magicians replicate. God hardens Pharoah’s heart and through Moses unleashes 10 plagues on Egypt. After each plague Pharoah refuses to let the Israel go. Until the final plague, the Passover.
4. The Passover, Exodus and Crossing the Red Sea (12-15)
The final plague, the passover brings death to the first born of anyone who has not placed the blood of sacrificed lamb over their door. After this plague, Pharoah relents and lets the people go. He then changes his mind, and pursues them to the Red Sea in which God parted through Moses to allow Israel to cross and then brought it down upon Pharoah.
5. Learning in the Wilderness (Ex. 15-18)
In the Wilderness God was leading his people and asking them to trust him. They didn’t. They grumbled and complained and even asked to go back to Egypt. God provided them Manna, yet they still did not see God as their provider until Moses persuaded them.
6. Covenant at Sinai and the 10 Commandments (19-24)
Israel gathers at Mt. Sinai and Moses is called into the Mountain where God meets with him. There he covenants with Moses and gives him the 10 commandments (Moral Law).
7. Tabernacle and Priesthood (25-31)
Here God gives Moses direct instructions for the building of the tabernacle and the setting up of the priesthood. The purpose of the Tabernacle is so that God can mediate his presence with his people wherever they go. The ark and the mercy seat is where Yahweh will meet with Moses and the regular sacrifices will sanctify the people of Israel for God’s presence with them.
8. Covenant Breaking and Renewal (32-34)
While Moses is on the mountain meeting with God the people build a golden calf and worship it. God judges them, but Moses intercedes on Israel’s behalf and God shows mercy.
9. Tabernacle established and Inaugurated (35-40)
Israel brings extensive offerings and skilled craftsman that enables the tabernacle to be constructed just as God had required. In chapter 40 we see the cloud and glory of Yahweh’s presence come to the tabernacle as they earlier came to Mt. Sinai.
Choose a minor prophet and describe his main message and the flow of his prophecy.
Obadiah - His main message is that Edom stands judged under certain doom because of her pride and and the rejoicing over the misfortunes that came to Jerusalem.
Flow of Prophecy:
He begins with the certain and complete judgment of Edom (Vs. 1-9)
He then gives the basis for the judgment: absences of brotherly love (vs. 10), Aloofness (vs. 11-12), aggressiveness (13-14)
He then gives the time of the judgment (vs. 15)
Then the results of Gods Judgment (vs. 16-18)
Deliverance of Israel (19-21)
Give a broad outline of Romans with a brief description of the contents of each section.
I. Paul's Greetings and Longings (Rom. 1:1-17)
Here Paul gives his greetings and his longing to visit Rome.
II. Sinfulness of Jews and Gentiles: (Rom. 1:18-3:20)
Paul here makes clear that sins corruption has affected both Jew and Gentile. In 1:18-32, he makes it clear that everyone is without excuse. (vs. 18) For the Gentile because What can be known about God is plain to them and have exchanged the truth about God for a lie (vs. 25) and worshipped the created thing rather than the creator. But the Jew is also without excuse. (2:1) For they have sinned under the law and judged by it (vs. 12) Paul finishes in Chapter 3 by reminding that none are righteouss, neither Jew nor Gentile. 3:10)
III. Salvation of Jews and Gentiles (Rom. 3:21-8:39)
Paul offers the hope of salvation here through Justification and Sanctification. Romans 3:21-22 talks about the importance of faith alone in Jesus Christ for all who believe. He uses Abraham as an example in Chapter 4. Abraham believed God and it was credited to him as Righteousness. Paul then lists the benefits of our Justification - Peace with God, access to him through faith, receive hope produced through suffering. Paul also discusses our sancrification by reminding the readers taht sin’s dominion has been broken (6:1-23), that believers will struggle with ongoing sin as its being put to death (Chapter 7) and that our new life is empowered by the Holy Spirit (Romans 8)
IV. The Gospel and Israel(Rom. 9 - 11)
Paul here addresses the question, Does the transfer of covenant privelages from Israel to the church mean that he has spurned his promises to Israel. The answer? Not at all. Paul reveals that God’s promises were never intended to guarantee salvation to every Israelite by birth. (9:6 - 29) In Chapter 9 he emphasizes that salvation is by God’s sovereign choice, not birthright. Paul also emphasize that the people of Israel themselves are to blame for the failing to embrace God’s righteousness in Christ. (9:30 - 10:21) Paul finishes by reminding arrogant gentiles that salvation has come to them through the Jews. (11:12-36)
V. Practical Instructions (Rom. 12:1-15:13)
Here Paul asserts the outworking of God’s grace in the gospel. His work of Grace should produce sacrificial living and giving as living acts of worship (12:1) Should be made evident in the Body of Christ through the exercising of gifts, (12:3-21) in the Social and Political life (13) and among the weaker brothers (14-15:1)
VI. Final Greetings (Rom. 15:14-16:27)
Paul concludes with information about his plans to visit Rome, requests for prayer, greetings, warnings of false teachers, and a benediction.
Describe the flow of the author’s argument in Hebrews
The author’s argument seeks to establish Christ’s preeminence. He does this by demonstrating His superiority to the Mosaic law, the priesthood and the sacrificial system. His argument leads the reader to place their faith alone in Christ where they will find there ultimate perseverance
1. Christ is Superior to the angels (1-2)
2. Christ is Superior to Moses (3-4) Jesus is our true deliver
3. Christ is Superior to Aaron (4-7) - Jesus is our true High Priest
4. Christ is Superior to Priestly Ministry (8-10) Jesus is our covenant, tabernacle and sacrifice
5. Call to Persevere in Faith (10-12) - Faith in Jesus gives us perseverance
6. Conclusion (Hebrews 13)
How is the book of Revelation organized?
It is organized as a 'recapitulation'. The book covers the time between the first and second comings of Christ several times. (Typically seven.) John has written this as a collection of 4 visions, each beginning with some acknowledgement that he was "in the spirit" and the angel revealed stuff to him. These occur in Chapters 1, 4, 17 and 20.
Four Visions that recapitulate church history 7 times.
Give the major developments in the history of Israel from the time of Samuel to the close of the Old Testament.
1050 BC Saul becomes King
BC Samuel annoints David
1010 BC David becomes King
970 BC Solomon King/Temple completed
926 BC Kingdom Divides (Judah - South, Israel North)
721 BC Assyrian captures Israel
612 BC Babylon captures Ninevah/Assyria
610 BC Josiah finds the law/brings reform
597 BC Babylon Attacks Judah
586 BC Babylon destroys Jerusalem/ Temple
538 BC Exiles release/return
536 BC Temple begins to be rebuilt
516 BC Temple dedicated
478 BC Esther becomes queen
457 BC Ezra brings Reform
444 BC Nehemiah Rebuilds Walls
432 BC Nehemiah restores the Law
430 BC Word of God from Malachi
If you only had an O.T. at your disposal, to what passages would you direct someone to explain the gospel?
Genesis 1,2 - Created in God's Image/ Perfect
Genesis 3 - Fall
Gen 22 - Picture of Christ through sac. of Issac
Ex. 12 - Picture of Christ through Passover
Numb. 21 - Picture of Christ through Snake on the Pole
Ezekiel 36 - Remove heart of stone and give a heart of flesh....
Isaiah 53 - Prophecy of Christ and his atoning work.
Show the O.T. doctrines summarized in 5 points of Calvinism.
* Genesis 6 - man's heart continually evil
* Isaiah 64 - Righteousness as Filthy Rags
* Jeremiah 17 - Mans heart continually evil
* Psalm 51 - Brought forth in iniquity in sin
* Deut 7 - Lord has chosen you to be a people for his possession
* Malachi 1 - Jacob have I loved, Esau have I hated.
* Isaiah 53 - He was stricken/bore sin of His people.
* Daniel 4:35 - God does as he wills
* Psalm 115 - God does all he pleases
* Hosea 2:14,15
Perseverance of the Saints
* Jer. 32:40 - Eternal promise to never stop blessing and never turn away from them.
* Isa 43:6,7
Helping other congregation members understand what has happened when a professed believer has fallen into some scandalous sin and been excommunicated
Matthew 18 – process followed, if he refuses to listen, let him be like an outsider (tax collector/gentile) to you. Treat him like an outsider – don’t abuse him.
1 Cor 5 – deliver him over to satan for the destruction of his body that his soul may be saved
Helping a person understand the morality of, and the practical concerns related to, seeking a divorce
Matthew 5 – no divorce except in the case of sexual immorality, to marry another is to commit adultery.
1 Cor 7 – would seem to indicate if someone refuses to live w/ the spouse (i.e. abandons them), then divorce might be allowed.
Gen 2 – leave father and mother, 2 become 1 flesh
Eph 5 – Marriage reflecting X & church
Instructing new parents in the privileges, responsibilities and duties they have with respect to their children
Deut. 6 & Psalm 145 – telling the next generation the stories of God’s grace
Psalm 127 – Children are a blessing/reward from God
Eph 6:4 – do not provoke your children, bring them up in the discipline & instruction of the Lord
Prov. 22:6... train up a child in a way he should go.
Guiding a professed believer with respect to his calling, and decision making, in the this-worldly affairs of his life
a. James 1:5 – If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask God who gives generously to all without reproach, and it will be given him.
b. Psalm 1 – delight in the law of the Lord, meditate on it; all he does prospers
c. Matt 6 – store up treasure in heaven, & consider the sparrow – Don't make decisions based out of fear/ not faith.