Luther's three major issues w/ Catholic doctrine of the Lord's Supper
1. Withholding the cup from the laity
2. Doctrine of Transubstantiation
3. In the Eucharist, the priest performs a sacrifice on behalf of the people
1. Sacraments were means by which Christians pledged allegiance to the church.
2. Eucharist was commemoration of the death of Christ
3. Christ is present only in the hearts of believers (contra Luther, who said He is bodily present)
What are the two parts of a sacrament?
Sign & thing signified
"outward, sensible sign, & inward spiritual grace"
What is signified in Baptism?
Ingrafting into Christ
Partaking the benefits of cov of grace **
engagement to be the Lord's
**Benefits signified include:
Remission of sins by his blood
resurrection to everlasting life
giving up to God to walk in new life
What is a sacrament?
signs and seals of the covenant of grace
instituted by God, to:
represent X and his benefits
confirm our interest in him
put a visible difference between Xians and the world
engage Xians in service of God in X
strengthen their faith
testify to their love & communion w/ each other
On What does the Efficacy of a Sacrament depend?
The work of the Spirit & the Word of institution
Any power in themselves
The piety of intention of the one administering
(Rome affirms both of these)
What are the sacraments and who may dispense them?
Baptism and The Lord's Supper
Dispensed only by a minister of the word, lawfully ordained (In opposition to Rome, which allows baptism by lay persons in extreme cases)
What are the five Roman Catholic sacraments that are not affirmed by Reformed Presbyterians?
Three things essential to a sacrament:
Outward visible sign
Inward invisible grace
(The Roman 5 don't meet these three tests)
What is Baptism?
A sacrament of the new testament, ordained by Jesus, to admit the party baptized into the visible church, and signify their union w/ Christ and partaking of his benefits.
Administered w/ water in the name of the Father, Son, & Holy Spirit
To whom is baptism administered
Those who make profession of faith in Jesus Christ, and the infant children of one or both believing parents.
Is the efficacy of Baptism tied to the moment of administration?
No, but the Holy Spirit really exhibits and confers the grace promised therein to those to whom it belongs in his appointed time.
How do we improve our baptism?
In times of temptation, & when it's administered to others, we should:
Consider the nature of it, and the ends for which Christ gave it
Remembering the death and resurrection of Jesus and drawing strength from them
Being humbled by our sin and seeking to put it to death
Growing in our assurance of pardon for sin
What is the Lord's supper?
A sacrament of the New Testament, wherein by giving and receiving bread and wine, according to Jesus' appointment:
his death is showed forth,
worthy communicants feed on his body and blood by faith to their spiritual nourishment,
have their union and communion w/ him confirmed
testify & renew thankfulness and engagement to God and their mutual love & fellowship with each other.
Is Christ offered up to the father in the sacrament of the Lord's supper?
No, he has offered himself once for all on the cross, and supposing to offer him again is contradictory to his one sacrifice.
How are ministers to set apart the bread and wine?
With the words of institution, thanksgiving, and prayer
How are the bread and wine to be given and received?
Set apart w/ words of institution, thanksgiving, & prayer
take and break the bread
take the cup
give both to the communicants (communicating also themselves)
What are inappropriate practices w/ regard to Lord's Supper?
Private masses or receiving alone
denial of the cup to the people
worshiping elements or lifting them up and carrying around for adoration
reserving them for pretended religious use
Is the body and blood of Christ present with the elements?
The bread and wine to not change substance into the physical substance of the body and blood of Christ. Nor are the body and blood of Christ carnally or corporally present with, in, or under the bread and wine.
Rather, the body and blood are spiritually present to the faith of the receiver, no less truly than the elements to the outward senses, so that receivers spiritually feed on the body and blood of Christ
Do the ignorant & wicked receive the body and blood of Christ in the sacrament?
Though they may receive the elements, they do not receive the thing signified, if they come in an unworthy manner, instead eating and drinking judgment on themselves and become guilty of the Lord's body and blood.
(Contra Rome and Lutheran teaching, which hold that all (worthy & unworthy alike) received the body and blood, because the elements become the body and blood (Catholic) or the body and blood are present with the elements (Lutheran))
How are we to prepare for the Lord's supper?
Are we in Christ?
Where are our sins?
Is our faith, repentance, and love for God real?
Do we hold unforgiveness in our hearts?
Do we desire Christ and new obedience to him?
Consider all this w/ meditation & prayer
Can we come if we doubt that we really are in Christ or that we've prepared adequately?
We may truly be in Christ even if we have not received assurance of it yet. If we know we lack assurance but honestly desire to be found in Christ and to depart from sin, then we should bewail our unbelief and come to the Lord's table for strength, since this sacrament is given for the relief even of weak and doubting Christians.
Can any be kept from the table who profess faith in Christ?
If they are ignorant or scandalous, they should be kept from the table until receiving instruction and demonstrating change.
What is required of recipients while the Lord's supper is being administered?
They should wait upon God
Pay attention to the elements and actions
Discern the Lord's body
meditate on his death and sufferings
stir up sorrow for sin hunger for christ
Feed on him by faith, trust his mercy, rejoice in his love
renew their covenant with God
renew their love to all the saints
What is our duty after receiving the Lord's Supper?
Consider how they received it, and whether it has been of benefit to them - if so, beg God to continue the benefit, if not, review their preparation and see if they failed - if not, wait for fruit in due time, but if so, be humbled and be more careful next time
Where do Baptism and Lord's Supper agree?
Author is God
Spiritual part is Christ and his benefits
Seals of same covenant
Dispensed only by ministers of the gospel
Continued in church of X until his second coming
Where do Baptism and Lord's Supper differ?
Baptism administered once, w/ water, as sign and seal of regeneration and ingrafting into Christ, and given to infants
Lord's Supper administered often, w/ bread and wine, to represent and exhibit Christ as spiritual nourishment & confirm our continuance & growth in him; given only to those old enough and able to examine themselves.
When and by whom is Baptism to be administered?
It should not be unnecessarily delayed
My not be administered by a lay person under any circumstance
Must be administered by a minister of Christ
It should be administered in the presence of the congregation, not privately
Before Baptism, should the child be presented to the minister?
Yes, by their parents, or some other responsible person, signifying the desire for the child to be baptized
Before Baptism, how should the minister instruct the congregation?
Touching on the institution, nature, use, and ends of the sacrament
10 suggested topics for instructing the congregation before baptism:
1. Instituted by Jesus
2. Seal of cov of grace, of ingrafting into X, of union w/ X, remission of sins, regeneration, adoption, life eternal
3. Water represents and signifies blood of X which takes away guilt of sin, and sanctifying work of Spirit of X against rule of sin and corruption of sinful nature
4. Washing w/ water signifies cleansing from sin by blod of X, mortification of sin, and rising to new life by virtue of death and resurrection of X.
5. Promise is made to believers and their children; children have interest in cov and right to seal of it and to outward privileges of Church - under OT and more so under Gospel
6. Son of God admitted little children to his presence, blessed them, saying "for of such is kingdom of God"
7. Chilren are received by baptism into visible church and united to believers; all baptized renounce world/flesh/devil
8. Children are federally holy before Baptism, so they are baptized
9. Inward grace & virtue of Baptism not tied to the moment of administration - fruit and power reaches the whole course of our life. Outward baptism not so necessary that unbaptized infant is in danger of damnation
10. Children of believers are made members of the church, but this isn't sufficient to make them continue members. They are subject to obligations of the covenant when they reach age of discretion - faith, repentance, & obedience. Profess faith or become covenant breakers
Four things required of parents @ baptism
Teach the child to read the Word of God
Instruct in the principles of our holy religion
pray with and for the child
set an example of piety and godliness and endeavor to bring up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord.
What are the covenant promises the minister is to read at baptism?
Acts 2:39 - The promise is for you and your children and for all who are far off - for all whom the Lord our God will call.
Gen 17:7 - I will establish my covenant as an everlasting covenant between me and you and your descendants after you for the generations to come, to be your God and the God of your descendants after you.
Acts 16 - Believe in the Lord Jesus, and you will be saved - you and your household.
What is the first question asked of parents in Baptism?
Do you acknowledge your child's need of the cleansing blood of Jesus Christ, and the renewing grace of the Holy Spirit?
What is the second question asked in Baptism?
Do you claim God's covenant promises in his behalf, and do you look in faith to the Lord Jesus Christ for his salvation, as you do for your own?
What is the third question asked of parents at Baptism?
Do you now unreservedly dedicate your child to God, and promise, in humble reliance upon divine grace, that you will pray with and for him, that you will teach him the doctrines of our holy religion, and that you will strive, by all the means of God's appointment, to bring him up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord?
What is the question asked of the congregation at Baptism according to BCO, and is it mandatory?
Do you as a congregation undertake the responsibility of assisting the parents in the Christian nurture of this child?
It is optional
What are the words of institution for Baptism?
Calling the Child by name, the minister says: "I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit."
How is the minister to administer the water of baptism?
While pronouncing the words of institution, he is to pour or sprinkle the water on the head of the child without adding any other ceremony; then he is to conclude w/ prayer
Is there a set time when a person is old enough to understand the gospel?
No - this must be left up to the prudence of the Session.
What are the 5 vows made by those seeking admission to sealing ordinances? (i.e. membership vows)
1. Do you acknowledge yourselves to be sinners in the sight of God, justly deserving His displeasure, and without hope save in His sovereign mercy?
2. Do you believe in the Lord Jesus Christ as the Son of God, and Savior of sinners, and do you receive and rest upon Him alone for salvation as He is offered in the Gospel?
3. Do you now resolve and promise, in humble reliance upon the grace of the Holy Spirit, that you will endeavor to live as becomes the followers of Christ?
4. Do you promise to support the Church in its worship and work to the best of your ability?
5. Do you submit yourselves to the government and discipline of the Church, and promise to study its purity and peace?
How should the session help prepare the congregation to take the Lord's supper?
Give public notice, at least the Sabbath before administration of the ordinance
Instruct the people in the nature and due preparation either when it is announced or on some day of the week.
After the sermon, what should the minister show concerning the Lord's supper?
That it is an ordinance of Christ by reading the words of institution either from the gospels or 1 Corinthians 11.
That it is observed in remembrance of Christ and to proclaim his death until he comes.
That is it useful to strenghten the saints, encourage them in love, and increase their faith.
How should the room be set up for communion?
Table decently covered, furnished w/ bread and wine
Communicants sitting around it, or in their seats, orderly and gravely
Elders in a convenient place together
What is to be done regarding the bread?
He is to take it and break it in the sight of the people
What is to be said regarding the bread?
The Lord Jesus, on the night he was betrayed, took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, "This is my body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of me."
(1 Cor 11 - some other biblical account of the institution may be substituted)
After distributing the bread, what shall be done & said w/ regard to the cup?
He shall take the cup, and say:
"In the same way, after supper he took the cup, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood; do this, whenever you drink it, in remembrance of me."
He shall give the cup while saying these words
(1 Cor 11 - other passage of institution may be substituted)
What other elements are appropriate in the service after serving communion?
Offering for the poor
Psalm or hymn
Define sign & seal
As a sign a sacrament is a symbolic representation of a specific reality
As a seal a sacrament confirms and authenticates the specific reality.
A sacred order observed by the church for the purpose of being a means of grace for the people of God.
What is the relation between sign and thing signified?
There is, in every sacrament, a spiritual relation, or sacramental union, between the sign and the thing signified: whence it comes to pass, that the names and effects of the one are attributed to the other.”
Give scriptural support for sacraments as a sign and seal
Romans 4:11 states that Abraham received the sign of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness he had by faith prior to circumcision. According to the text he received the sign “εἰς τα εἰνια” for the purpose of making him the father of all who believe – both of the circumcised and uncircumcised.
The sacraments of the NT have the same function of sign and seal – for this kind of language see
Baptism: Romans 6:3 “Don't you know that all of us who were baptized into Christ were baptized into his death?" Signifying our union w/ him and sealing (confirming it in our knowledge)
Matt 26:26 (“this is my body”) for the Lord’s supper. combined w/ 1 Cor 11 - you proclaim the Lord's death - not bare statement of fact but confirmation of it's reality and efficacy in us
Cite at least four NT references showing parallels between OT and NT sacraments
Matt 26:26-28 “blood of the covenant”
Now as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and after blessing it broke it and gave it to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is my body." And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, saying, "Drink of it, all of you, for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins.
Romans 4:11 “seal of righteousness”
He received the sign of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness that he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised. The purpose was to make him the father of all who believe without being circumcised, so that righteousness would be counted to them as well,
1 Cor. 10:1-4 “baptized into Moses”
I want you to know, brothers, that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea, and all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea, and all ate the same spiritual food, and all drank the same spiritual drink. For they drank from the spiritual Rock that followed them, and the Rock was Christ.
Col 2:11-12 “circumcision of Christ… buried with him in baptism”
In him also you were circumcised with a circumcision made without hands, by putting off the body of the flesh, by the circumcision of Christ, 12 having been buried with him in baptism, in which you were also raised with him through faith in the powerful working of God, who raised him from the dead.
Scriptural support for sign & seal of Baptism
Acts 2 - What must we do? Repent and be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of sins.
Acts 10 - Baptism of Cornelius follows demonstration that the Spirit had come on them - a sign & seal of their faith which was clearly evident
Colossians 2 - buried w/ Christ in baptism and raised w/ him
Romans 6 - Baptized into X baptized into his death
Give Scriptural support for WLC #165 components baptism
1) in-grafting into himself, (Gal. 3:27 - for as many as are baptized have put on Christ)
2) remission of sins by his blood, (Acts 2:38 Repent, be baptized… for the forgiveness of your sins… Rev. 1:5 Christ has freed us from our sins by his blood)
3) regeneration by his Spirit; (Tit. 3:5 - washing of regeneration & renewal of the Holy Spirit; Acts 10 - baptism given as sign after Holy Spirit clearly falls on Cornelius)
4) adoption, (Gal. 3:26-27 – in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God through faith, for all baptized into X are clothed w/ him)
5) resurrection unto everlasting life; (Rom. 6:5 - we shall certainly be united with him in a resurrection like his)
How Does The sign and seal relate To paedo-baptism?
Infant baptism is a sign and seal indicating that one has been publicly identified with Christ by his parents and thus is engaged to be the Lord's. One can have confidence that he belongs to Christ if he perseveres in obedience to Christ's commands.
Steve, it's Dan here. I'd find this answer from the Chapell flash cards lacking. John Murray says "...the import of baptism must be the same for infants as for adults. It cannot have one meaning for infants and another for adults. Baptism is the sign and seal of membership in Christ's body, the church. If the baptism of infants is of divine institution, baptism must be for them, no less than for adults, the sign and seal of union with Christ in the virtue of his death and the power of his resurrection." Christian Baptism p. 48.
In other words - the sign relates to paedo-baptism the same way it relates to baptism upon profession of faith - it's the sign and seal of union w/ Christ in his death and reasurrection and all the attendant benefits, and of our engagement to be the Lord's. The conditions on which it is given to adults and infants is different - upon profession of faith vs faith of the parents - but the promises on which it rests, its meaning, and its efficacy are one and the same.
On what basis is paedo-baptism understood as a sign and seal?
1) That God’s covenant promise is for us and for our children (Acts 2:39), as it was with Abraham (Gen 17).
2) Just as the sign of God’s covenant was applied to children in the old dispensation, so the new sign of baptism should be applied to the children of believing parents. There is no new prohibition, in the New Testament excluding children from the covenant.
3) Examples of household baptism in Acts may be evidence of children baptism (though this is only secondary evidence, and not a basis for covenantal baptism)
Would you under any circumstances baptize someone by immersion?
Heck yes I would. WCF 28.3…. dipping not necessary, but baptism is rightly administered by pouring or sprinkling water upon the person. It is not a “higher” form of baptism.
How Would You Deal With A Family In You Local Church Who Did Not Want Their Child Baptized?
I would take the time to
1) gently instruct them in the doctrine of baptism and its importance
2) and help them scripturally overcome any difficulties they may have with baptizing their children by instruction in covenantal understanding of scripture and the continuity between the testaments.
WLC 165, 167
In the end I would respect the family’s convictions and not require them to baptize their child, while at the same time praying that the Lord would lead them to such a conviction. I would not perform a “baby dedication.”
Note also the further issue that any individual not holding the a paedo-baptism position cannot become an officer in the church.
Does Baptism actually save the person baptized?
WCF 28.5 – it is a great sin to condemn or neglect this ordinance (take for instance the LORD’s response to Moses failure to circumcise his kids in Ex. 4 or the requirement for circumcision for taking the Passover in Ex. 12:48)
1) grace and salvation are not so “inseparably annexed” unto it so that no person can be regenerated, or saved, without it (Rom. 4:11 – Abraham had saving faith prior to circumcision, as did Cornelius in Acts 10)
2) not all that are baptized are undoubtedly regenerated. (In Acts 8 Simon the magician is said to have believed, was baptized – and then rebuked by Peter who said he had “neither part nor lot.” Also the warning passages in Hebrews are spoken to believers who likely had been baptized.)
NOR (WCF 28.6) is the efficacy of Baptism tied to the moment of time wherein it is administered; (John 3 the wind blows where it wishes)
Can a person be baptized more than once?
A person cannot receive a valid Christian baptism but once (WCF 28.7). Rom. 6 tells us that our baptism unites us to Christ and in verse 10 it points out that the “death he died - he died to sin, once for all”
How would you handle a request from a previously baptized Roman Catholic – or for that matter a believing former liberal?
Meet with them to:
1) discuss their testimony and the marks of their own baptism (as infant? With believing parent(s)? Trinitarian formula? Visible church?) WLC 165
3) discuss their understanding of baptism (WLC 165) and lead them through an reformed understanding of baptism (for the Catholic… talk about Calvin’s baptism)
4) in the event they believe they have just been saved, discuss the idea that regeneration does not necessarily accompany baptism (WCF 28.5)
How would you handle a request from a previously baptized Mormon?
Counsel them to receive Christian baptism because the Mormon Church is no Church of Christ. The person would need to understand they were making a break away from a false religion. I would want them to understand the and true nature of the triune names of God by which they were now being baptized - one God three persons, not three gods (same words as their previous baptism… but entirely different meaning).
What "Happens" In The Lord's Supper?
Christ is present in the Lord's Supper, not in a physical sense, but in a spiritual sense. His enables believers to enjoy a mystical communion with Him as they are spiritually nourished by Christ's body and blood.
State and respond to the Roman Catholic view of the Lord’s Supper
Transubstantiation: Bread and wine become the actual body and blood of Christ, though you can’t see it.
1) Jesus stood before the apostles when he said it - and in this it was impossible for them to literally feast on him;
2) Paul speaks of the literal bread as bread in 1 Cor 10:17 & 11:26-28;
3) A change of the substance of a thing without a corresponding change of attributes is an impossibility
4) it is contrary to common sense to believe that what looks and tastes like bread and wine is indeed flesh and blood
State and respond to the Lutheran view of the Lord’s Supper
Consubstantiation: Bread and wine do not become the body of Christ, but Christ actually is "in, with, and under" the elements.
Response: This is not really an improvement on the RCC view – this takes for granted the corporeal presence of Jesus in glory and places him in his physical nature at each place where the Lord’s Supper is under way.
State and respond to the Zwinglian view of the Lord’s Supper
Memorial: The bread and the wine are not changed because the sacrament IS only a memorial to Christ's sacrifice on our behalf.
Response: The memorial view renders the sacrament dead in that there is nothing of the mystery of them at all
State and revel in the Reformed view of the Lord’s Supper
Spiritual presence: The bread and the wine are not changed during the sacrament, but Christ is spiritually present in a fashion, which allows true believers to be spiritually strengthened by a mystical communion with Christ.
How is fencing the table practiced during communion?
BCO 58-4 “Since, by our Lord's appointment, the sacrament sets forth the communion of Saints, the minister, at the discretion of the Session, before the observance begins, may:
1) invite all those who profess the true religion, and are communicants in good standing in any evangelical church, to participate in the ordinance;
2) invite those who have been approved by the session, after having given indication of their desire to participate.
3) It is proper also to give special invitation to noncommunicants to remain during the service.
Fencing of the table is:
1) the communication to the congregation of the dangers of unworthily coming to the table with un-confessed sin against another or unbelief (1 Cor 11).
2) In our context this is generally a verbal warning prior to the Lord’s supper
3) in some contexts it has involved the elders of the church forcibly not allowing those who are not communicate members in good standing from coming forward.