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Flashcards in Theology Deck (111):

What are the chapter headings in the confession.....

1. Holy Scriptures
2. God and the Holy Trinity
3. God's Eternal Decree
4. Creation
5. Providence
6. Of the Fall of Man, of Sin and the Punishment thereof
7. God's covenant with man
8. Christ the mediator
9. Free Will
10. Effectual Calling
11. Justification
12. Adoption
13. Sanctification
14. Saving Faith
15. Repentance unto Life
16. Good Works
17. Perseverance of the Saints
18. Assurance of Salvation
19. The Law of God
20. Christian Liberty, Liberty of Conscience
21. Religious Worship and the Sabbath Day
22 Lawful Oaths and Vows
23. The Civil Magistrate
24. Of Marriage and Divorce
25. Of the Church
26. THe Communion of Saints
27. Of the Sacaraments
28. Of Baptism
29. The Lord's Supper
30. Church Censures
31. Synods and Councils
32. THe State of Men after death and of the Resurrection of the Dead
33. The Last Judgment


When, in What Country and for what purpose were the Westminster standards produced?

1643 -1647 in England, To advise Parliament. Original purpose to revise 39 articles. Later given a new directive to prepare a new Confession of Faith, Catechism, Form of Government and Directory for worship for England, Scottland.


What were the parties represented at the Assembly?

Episcopalians, presbyterians, independents and Erastian representatives.


What is the chief end of man?

To glorify God and enjoy him forever.


What is God?

God is a Spirit, infinite, eternal and unchangeable in his being, wisdom, power, holiness, justice, goodness and truth.


What are the decrees of GOd

The decrees of God are his ETERNAL PURPOSE, according to the counsel of his will, whereby, for his own glory, he hat foreordained whatsoever comes to pass.


How did God create man?

God created man male and female after his own image in knowledge, righteousness and holiness with dominion over the creatures


What are the works of providence

God's works of providence are, his most holy, wise and powerful preserving and governing all his creatures and their actions.


What special act of providence did God exercise towards man in the estate wherin he was created?

He entered into a covenant of life with him, upon condition of perfect obedience; forbidding him to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, upon the pain of death.


What is sin?

Sin is failing to conform to or transgressing the law of God


Did all manind fall in Adam's first transgression

God made his covenant with Adam, not only for himself, but for his posterity; everyone who comes after him by ordinary generation, sinned in him and fell with him, in his first transgression.


Wherin consists the sinfulness of the estate wherin to man fell?

The sinfulness of that estate wherinto man fell, consists in the guilt of Adam's first sin, the lack of original righteouness and the corruption of his whole nature, which is commonly called original sin; together with all actual transgressions which proceed from it.


What is the misery of that estate wherin to man fell?

All mankind by their fall lost communion with God, are under his wrath and curse and so made liable to all the miseries of this life, to death itself and to the pains of hell forever.


Did God leave all mankind to perish in the estate of sin and misery?

God, having out of his mere good pleasure, from all eternity, elected some to everlasting life, did enter into a covenant of grace to deliver them out of the estate of sin and misery and to bring them into an estate of salvation by a redeemer.


How did Christ, being the son of God, become man?

Christ, the son of God, became man, by takin gto himself a true body and a reasonable soul, being conceived by the power of the Holy Ghost, in the womb of the virgin Mary, and born of her, yet without sin.


How doth Christ execute the office of prophet?

In revealing to us by his Word and Spirit the will of God for our salvation.


How doth Christ execute the office of Priest?

In his once offering up of himself a sacrifice to satisfy divine justice and to reconcile us to God and in makin continual intercession for us.


How doth Christ execute the office of King

In subduing us to himself, in ruling and defending us, and in restraining and conquering all his and our enemies


What is effectual calling?

Effectual calling is a work of God's Spriity, whereby, convincing us of our sin and misery, enlightening our minds in the knowledge of Christ an renewing our wills, he doth persuate adn enable us to embrace Jesus Christ, freely offered to us in the gospel.


What is justification?

Justification is an acat of God's free grace wherin he pardons all our sins and accepteth us as righteous in his sight, only for the righteouness of Christ imputed to us, and received by faith alone.


What is adoption

Adoption is an act of God's free grace, whereby we are received into the number, and have a right to all the privelages of the sons of God.


What is sanctification?

Sanctification is the work of God's free grace whereby we are renewed in the whole man after the image of God, and are enabled more and more to die unto sin, and live unto righteousness.


What is required and forbidden in the 1st commandment

Required: To know and acknoldge God to be the only true God and our God; and to worship and glorify him accordingly
Forbidden: The denying or not worshipping and glorifying the true God as God and our God and the giving of that worship and glory to any other, which is due to him alone.


What is required and forbidden in the 2nd commandment

The receiving, observing and keeping pure and entire, all such religius worship and ordinances as God hath appointed in his Word.
Forbidden: The worshiping of God by images, or any way not appointed in his word.


What is required and forbidden in the fifth Commandment

Requrired: Preservering the honor and performing the duties belonging to everyone in their several places and relations as superiors, inferiors or equals.
Forbidden: The neglecting of, or doing anything against, the honor and duty which belongeth to everyone in their several places and relations.


What is required in the sixth commandment

Required: All lawful endeavors to preserve our own life, or the life of others.
Forbidden: Taking away of our own life, or the life of our neighbor, unjustly, or whatsoever tendeth thereunto.


What is required and forbidden in the seventh commandment

required - preservation of our own and our neighbor's chastity, in heart speech and behavior.
forbidden: - All unchaste thoughts, words and actions.


What is required and forbidden in the ninth commandment?

Required - maintaining and promoting of truth between man and man, and of our won and our neighbor's good name, especially in witness-bearing.
Forbidden - Whatsover is prejudicial to truth, or injurious to our own, or our neighbor's good name.


Are all transgressions of the law equally heinous?

SOme sins in themselves, and by reason of several aggravations are more heinous in the sight of God than others.


What is faith in Jesus Christ

Faith in Jesus Christ is a saving grace, whereby we receive and rest upon him alone for salvation, as he is offered to us in the gospel.


What is repentance unto life

Is a saving grace, whereby a sinner, out of a true sense of his sin, and apprehension of the mercy of God in Christ, doth, with grief and hatred of his sin, turn from it unto God, with full purpose of, and endeavor after, new obedience.


How is the Word made effectual to salvation?

The spirit of God makes the reading, but especially the preaching, of the Word, an effectual means of convincing and converting sinnersm, and of building them up in holiness and comfort, through faith, unto salvation.


What is a sacrament?

A sacrament is a holy ordinance instituted by Christ; wherin, by sensible signs, Christ, and the benefits of the New Cov, are represented, sealed and applied to believers.


To whom is baptism to be adminstered

Not to any that are out of the visible church, till they profess faith in Christ, and obedience to him; BUT the infants of such are members of the visible church are to be baptized.


What is prayer

Prayer is the offering up of our desires unto God, for things agreeable to his will, in the name of Christ, with confession of our sins and a thankful acknowledgement of his mercies.


How doth it appear that there is a God?(L2)

The very light of nature in man, and the works of God, declare plainly that there is a God; but his word and Spirity only do sufficiently and effectually reveal him unto men for their salvation.


How doth it appear that the Scriptures are of the Word of God (L4)aAqaa

The Scriptures manifest themselves to be the Word of God by their majesty and purity; by the conset of all the parts, and the scope of the whole, which is to give all glory to God; by their light and power to convince and convert sinners, to comfort and build up believers unto salvation: but the Spirit of God bearing witness by and with the Scriptures in the very heart of man, is alone able fully to persuade it that they are the very word of God.


How was the covenant of Grace adminstered in the Old Test. (L34)

It was administered by promises, prophecies, sacrifices, circumcision, the passover and other types and ordinances, which did all fore-signify Christ then to come, and were for that time sufficient to build up the elect in faith in the promised Messiah, by whom they then had full remission of sin, and eternal salvation.


Can they who have never heard the gospel and so know not Jesus Christ, nor believe in him, be saved by their living according to the light of nature? (L60)

They cannot be saved, be they never so diligent to frame their lives according to the light of nature, or the laws of that religion which they profess; neither is there salvation in any other, but in Christ alone, who is the Savior only of his body and the church.


Are all they saved who hear the gospel and live in the church? (L61)

All that hear the gospel and live in the visible church, are not saved, but they only who are true members of the church invisible church.


What is the visible church? (L62)

The visbile church is a society made up of all such as in all ages and places of the world do profess the true religion and their children.


Wherein do justification and sanctification differ? (L-77)

Although sanctification be inseparably be joined with justification, yet they differe, in that God in justification imputeth the righteousness of Christ; in sanctification of his Spirit infuseth grace and enables to the exercise thereof; in the former, sin is pardoned, in the other it is subdued: the one doth equally free all believers from the revenging wrath of God, and that perfectly in this life, that they never fall into condemnation, the other is neither equal in all, nor in this life perfect in any, but growing up to perfection.


What rules are to be observed for the right understanding of the ten commandments? (L-99)

1. That the law is perfect and binds everyone to full conformity
2. That it is spiritual, and so reacheth the understanding, will affections and all other powers of the sould.
3. That one and the same thing, in diverse respects, is required or forbidden in several commandments
4. That as, where a duty is commanded, the contrary sin is forbidden; and, where a sin, is forbidden, the contrary duty is commanded. Where a promise is annexed the contrary threatning is included and vice versa
5. What God forbids, is at no time to be done; and what he commands is always our duty
6. That under one sin or duty, all of the same kind are forbidden or commanded, together with causes, means, occasion and appearances thereof
7. That what is forbidden or commanded to ourselves, we are bound according to our places to endeavor that it may be avoided or performed by others.
8. That what is forbidden or commanded to others, we are bound, according to our places and callings, to be helpful to them;


By whom and how is the Word of God to be preached? (L158)

to be preached only by such as are sufficiently gifted, and also duly approved and called to that office


Wherein to the sacraments of the Lord's Supper agree and disagree? (L176-177)

Agree - in that the author of both is God; the spiritual part of both is Christ and his benefits; both are seals of the same covenant, and are to be dispensed by ministers of the gospel and by none other; and to be continued in the church of Christ until his second coming.
Differ: - Baptism is to be administered but once with water, to be a sign and seal of our regeneration and ingrafting into Christ and that even to infants wheras the Lord's supper is to be adminstered often, in the elements of bread and wine, to represent and exhibit Christ as spiritual nourishment to the souls and to confirm our continuance an growth in him.


Meaning of Phrase "Those former ways of God's revealing his will unto his people being now ceased" and what is its significance for the doctrine of Scripture?

Meaning that other means of special revelation, such as prophecy and tongues has ceased. This means that the Scripture and Word of God are complete and most necessary.


Is there in the church today the office of prophet or the gift of prophecy, and if so, describe the office, or nature and function of the gift.

Yes. Rev 19:10 acts 10- declarative nature testimony of Jesus that he is risen. The office of Prophet in that TE/Pastors give testimony to Jesus.


Are people "Carried Along" by the Holy SPirit today (2 Peter 1:21) as they were in the NT? Are they given information that is "God-breathed" (2 Tim 3:16), in addition to or aport from the scripture?

No but we are given the testimony of Christ through his Spirit.


What is inspiration? Why do you suppose that inerrancy is not mentioned in the confession?



What place does Reason have in interpretation; what is meant by "good and necessary consequence?

We at times need to apply valid logical reasoning when interpreting Scriptures.


Explain the distinctioin between the sufficiency of Scripture with respect to the "Whole Counsel of God" and the "circumstances concerneing the worship of God, and government of the Church... which are to beordered by the light of nature..." found in Confession of Faith 1.6

There are some things that God has left up to us to make wise decisions in terms of worship and government. Where the whole counsel of Scripture is sufficient for mans own glory, mans salvation, faith and life.


What is illumination and how does it differ from revelation? What is illuminedated in illumination?



What is the "infallible rule of the interpretation of Scripture"? and how is the rule justified?

It is Scripture itself - Must be searched and known by other places that speak more clearly?


With respect to the being of God, is He bounded in any sense by space or time?

There is but one only, living and true God, who is infinite in being and perfection,...immutable, immense, eternal...


What does 'incomprehensible' mean with respect to God?



State the essential elements of the doctrine of the Trinity

In the unity of the Godhead there be three persons, of one substance, power, and eternity: God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost: The Father is of none, neither begotten, not proceeding; the Son is eternally begotten of the Father; the Holy Ghost eternally proceeding from the Father and the Son


What are the qualifications to the assertion that God ordains 'whatsoever comes to pass'?

1. Neither is God the author of sin
2.Nor is violence offered to the will of the creatures
3. Nor is the liberty or contingency of second causes taken away, but rather established


What is glorified in God's decree to withhold mercy from some?

His sovereign power over his creatures


Should the doctrine of predestination be preached, and if so, how and for what purpose?

Handled with special prudence and care, that men...may, from the certainty of their effectual vocation, be assured of their eternal election.
Doctrine affords:
Praise, reverence, admiration of God
Humility, diligence, and abundant consolation to all that sincerely obey the Gospel.


What does it mean that God made the world 'of nothing'?



What do you understand by the 'six days' of creation



What is the relation of means to the providence of God?

God, in His ordinary providence, makes use of means, yet is free to work without, above, and against them, at His pleasure.


What is the relation of the providence of God to sin and to the 'hardening' of sinners?

God's providence extends itself even to the first fall, and all other sins of angels and men...yet so as the sinfulness thereof proceeds only from the creature and not from God.
As for those wicked and ungodly men whom God...doth blind and harden, from them He not only withholdeth His grace whereby they might have been enlightened in their understandings, and wrought upon in their hearts; but sometimes also withdraweth the gifts which they had, and exposeth them to such objects as their corruption make occasion of sin; and gives them over to their own lusts, the temptations of the world, and the power of Satan, whereby...they harden themselves


What is the special object of God's providence?

His Church - it taketh care of His Church, and disposeth all things to the good thereof.


What is the extent of the effect of sin upon a person?

wholly defiled in all the parts and faculties of soul and body


What gracious element is presupposed in any covenant between God and man?

Voluntary condescension on God's part


What is the covenant of works?

The first covenant made with man was a covenant of works, wherein life was promised to Adam; and in him to his posterity, upon condition of perfect and personal obedience


What is the covenant of grace?

God freely offereth unto sinners life and salvation by Jesus Christ; requiring of them faith in Him, that they may be saved, and promising to give unto all those that are ordained unto eternal life His Holy Spirit, to make them willing and able to believe.


Describe the union of the two natures of the incarnate Son of God

two whole, perfect, and distinct natures...inseparably joined together in one person, without conversion, composition, or confusion.


What did the obedient life and sacrificial death of Christ achieve?

fully satisfied the justice of His Father; and purchased reconciliation and an everlasting inheritance in the kingdom of heaven for all those whom the Father has given him.


What is the condition of the will of man as converted?

freed from his natural bondage to sin
enabled to freely will and do what is spiritually good
Yet not perfectly nor only - he wills that which is good but also that which is evil


What is the condition of the will of man in glory

The will of man is made perfectly and immutably free to do good alone in the state of glory only.


How is it that a sinner certainly, yet freely, comes to Christ when effectually called?

by His Word and Spirit...enlightening their minds to understand the things of God, taking away their heart of stone, giving them a heart of flesh, renewing their wills, and determining them to that which is good


What is alone the instrument of justification?

Faith, thus receiving and resting on Christ and His righteousness, is the alone instrument of justification


What always accompanies the instrument of justification

accompanied with all other saving graces, and is no dead faith, but worketh by love


What is glorified in the justification of sinners

Both the exact justice and the rich grace of God


What are the benefits of adoption?

They are taken into the number and enjoy the liberties and privileges of children of God, have His name put on them, receive the spirit of adoption, have access to the throne of grace with boldness, are enabled to cry Abba Father, are pitied, protected, provided for, and chastened by Him as by a Father: yet never cast off, sealed to the day of redemption, and inherit the promises, as heirs of everlasting salvation


Is sanctification ever perfect in this life; why or why not?

It is imperfect in this life, there abiding still some remnants of corruption in every part


What are the principal acts of saving faith?

accepting, receiving, and resting upon Christ alone for justification, sanctification, and eternal life


Is repentance necessary to all sinners who would be pardoned; if so, how is it not a justifying work?

It is necessary to be pardoned, but it is not the cause of the pardon, which is the act of God's free grace


What are the motives and purposes of good works in the life of the believer?

by them believers:
manifest their thankfulness
strengthen their assurance
edify their brethren
adorn the profession of the gospel
stop the mouths of the adversaries
glorify God


What is the usefulness and the deficiency of the works of unregenerate men?

they are of good use both to themselves and to others.
They are deficient because they proceed not from a heart purified by faith, nor are done in a right manner, according to the Word, nor to a right end - the glory of God


Upon what does the certainty of the perseverance of the saints depend?

the immutability of the decree of election, flowing from the free and unchangeable love of God the Father; the efficacy of the merit and intercession of Jesus Christ, the abiding of the Spirit, and of the seed of God within them, and the nature of the covenant of grace


Is assurance of salvation of the essence of faith; do all believers have the duty to be assured?

infallibe assurance does not belong to the essence of faith - a true believer may waith long and conflict with many difficulties before he partakes of it
it is the duty of every one to give all diligence to make his calling and election sure


What laws given by God are now abrogated, and for what reason?

All ceremonial laws are now abrogated.
They were given to Israel as a church under age, these ordinances were types - prefiguring Christ and instructing in moral duties [under the new covenant the church has come of age.] ??


In what sense are the judicial laws of Israel obligatory today?

Only the general equity of the laws are obligatory


What is the use of the moral law for believers?

it is a rule of life informing them of the will of God, and their duty
It discovers the sinful pollutions of their nature, hearts, and lives...leading to conviction of sin and clearer sight of the need they have of Christ.
It also restrains corruptions in that it forbids sin, and shows God's approval of obedience and the blessings that accompany it.


What is liberty of conscience?

God alone is Lord of the conscience. He has freed it from the doctrines and commandments of men that are contrary to His word, or beside it if matters of faith or worship.


What is the exclusive rule prescribing the acceptable way of worship?

God's own revealed will - he may not be worshipped according to the imaginations and devices of men, or the suggestions of Satan, under any visible representation, or any other way not prescribed in the Holy Scripture.


Are tongues to be permitted in public worship today?

If vocal, prayer should be in a known tongue.


What is the Sabbath Day

God has particularly appointed one day in seven to be set apart for the worship of God, to be kept holy unto him


What are the continuities and discontinuities with respect to OT and NT Sabbath keeping?

??? From the beginning of the world until the resurrection of Christ it was the last day of the week; from the resurrection of Christ it was changed into the first day of the week.


May Christians now lawfully participate in war?

They may lawfully wage war upon just and necessary occasion


Under what conditions is divorce and remarriage permitted?

Adultery after marriage, and after the divorce, to marry another as if the offending party were dead.
nothing but adultery or willful desertion that cannot be remedied by church or state is sufficient cause for divorce


In what sense does the Confession of Faith assert that the visible church is catholic

not confined to one nation, as before under the law


What is the purpose of the Church's ministry?

gathering and perfecting of the saints


Who are the parties and what are the duties of Christian fellowship?

all saints united to Jesus Christ have fellowship with him, and are united to one another in love.
bound to maintain fellowship in the worship of God and other spiritual services for mutual edification, and relieving each others needs


Who may administer the sacraments?

only a minister of the Word lawfully ordained


How is baptism rightly administered to an individual?

Dipping of a person into the water is not necessary, but Baptism is rightly administered by pouring or sprinkling water upon the person.


How often is baptism to be administered to an individual?

The sacrament of Baptism is but once to be administered unto any person


What is wrong with 'the popish sacrifice of the mass?'

it injures the one and only sacrifice of Christ by supposing to offer him up again to the Father


In what sense, if any, is Christ present in the Lord's Supper?

Christ is spiritually present to the faith of believers in the ordinance


What is the power of the keys of the kingdom and by what means is this power exercised?

Power to retain and remit sins, to shut the kingdom against the impenitent, and to open it to penitent sinners.
Exercised by the ministry of the Word and church censures


May synods and councils deal with civil affairs, and if so, under what conditions?

They are not to intermeddle with civil affairs...unless by way of humble petition in cases extraordinary, or by way of advice if required by the civil magistrate


At the last day, what shall be the state of the bodies of the just and the unjust?

The bodies of the unjust shall be raised to dishonor, the bodies of the just to honor, conforming to Christ's glorious body


Who and what will be judged at the last judgment?

Apostate angels and all persons that have lived will be judged
thoughts, words, and deeds will be judged


What will be the end of the righteous and the wicked?

Righteous shall enter everlasting life and receive God's full and refreshing joy from his presence.
The wicked will be consigned to eternal torment, receiving never ending destruction and banished from the presence of the Lord and the glory of his divine power


For what reason would Christ have us know that there will be a day of judgment, while keeping time unknown?

It deters everyone from sin and offers greater consolation to the godly in their adversity. keeping time unknown causes people to shake off carnal security and be always watchful


What is the extent if the effect of sin upon a person?

wholly defiled in all the parts and faculties of soul and body


What is the relation of the doctrinal standards of the PCA to a) Scripture and b) One's Conscience

a. Subject to and subordinate to the Scriptures
b. Cannot bind the conscience???


What four words describe God's works of providence?

Uphold, direct, dispose, govern