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Flashcards in Church History Deck (161):

What is the value of studying Church History

-It educates us on the historical roots of our beliefs
-It teaches us to learn from the examples of our predecessors
-It helps us to find our place in God's story
-It helps us to understand the boundaries of orthodoxy in biblical interpretation


How would you define the periods of church history, with years?

-Ancient Church History (c. 100-451)
-Medieval Church History (c. 451-1500)
-Reformation (1500-1700)
-Modern Church History (1700-Present)


What were the 5 "solas" of the Reformation?

Sola Scriptura, Sola fide, sola gratia, solus Christus, soli deo gloria


Trace the development of Covenant Theology

-Ancient theologians prior to Pelagius controversy did not have well developed doctrine of salvation.
Irenaeus saw humanity federally & covenantally represented in Adam.
Augustine developed idea of covenant of works and cov of grace.
Medieval - mostly saw God's justification as based on what was true in the sinner - if he justifies it's b/c he infuses them with righteousness.
William of Ockham - merit based on fulfilling the covenant. God rewards with merit sinners who try their best to fulfill terms of covenant
-Covenant theology as we know it today began in the 16th century with Zwingli, who emphasized the Abrahamic covenant as a model for the Christian's relationship to God (Zwingli used this to argue for infant baptism against the Anabaptists)
-Bullinger wrote the first treatise on covenant theology, in which he argued that all of Scripture must be seen in light of the Abrahamic covenant
-Calvin also makes extensive use of the covenant, and two of his students made significant advances in covenant theology
--Ursinus first spoke of a pre-fall covenant of works, and Olevianus presented the idea of an eternal covenant between the Father and the Son for the salvation of man
-In the 17th century, Cocceius was the first to use the covenant as the basic framework for organizing theology
-The covenant of works and grace achieved credal status in the Westminster Standards
-During the 20th century, largely due to the work of Meredith Kline, scholars came to view the biblical covenants through the framework of the ancient Near Eastern Suzerain vassal treaty


When was the persecution under Nero



When was the persecution under Domintian



When was the persectuion under Trajan?



When was the persectuion under Decius?

249-251 (First systematic general persecution)


When was the persecution under Valerian



When was the persecution under Diocleatian?

303 (the Great Persecution)


When was the destruction of the Jewish Temple



What was the Edict of Milan

313 (legalized Christianity)


When did Christianity become the official religion of the Roman Empire

380 (Theodosian Empire)


When was the council of Nicea and what occured there?

-325, convened by Constantine
-Condemned Arianism (teaching that the Son was 1st creation of God the Father) and composed the Nicene Creed
-Uses the language of "homoousios" - of one being - Son is true God from True God, begotten not made, of one being with the father.


Council of Ephesus

431, convened by Emperor Theodosius II
-Condemned Nestorianism, which said that the divine and human natures of Jesus were two separate persons
-Condemned Pelagianism, which emphasized free will, denied original sin, and taught salvation by meritorious obedience


Council of Chalcedon

451, convened by Eastern Emperor Marcion
-Condemned Eutychianism (which taught that the human nature was absorbed into the divine in the incarnation)
-Composed the Chalcedonian creed, which clearly taught the hypostatic union (Christ has a reasonable soul, no confusion, change, division, or separation in the union of Christ's two natures
-One substance with God and with us



Denies the need to obey God's law. Was a popular component of Gnosticism and has persisted in various forms through the centuries.



Heresy of the early church that denied Jesus had come in the flesh, saying that Jesus only seemed to be man. John combats it in 1 John 4:2, and became an important aspect of Gnosticism



Jewish Christians in the 1st-4th Centuries who denied the preexistence of Christ and believed the entire OT law had to be kept for salvation.



2nd Century heresy that taught a strong distinction between the vengeful God of the OT and the merciful God of the NT, and accepted only Paul's Epistles and Luke from the NT. Aspects similar to Gnosticism



A group of primarily 2nd century heresies that taught a radical dualism between matter and spirit, proclaimed salvation through special knowledge, and a docetic view of Christ
-Most famous Gnostic was Valentinus
-Writings: Gospel of Thomas, Philip, Truth, Judas
-Major opponents: Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Epiphanius


Donatism **

4th Century North African movement that started a separate church, emphasizing holiness and purity of visible church.
- Augustine was primary opponent
- Started when the confessors wouldn't let the lapsed back into the church.
-Donatism was the error taught by Donatus, bishop of Casae Nigrae that the effectiveness of the sacraments depends on the moral character of the minister. In other words, if a minister who was involved in a serious enough sin were to baptize a person, that baptism would be considered invalid.



3rd century form of Gnosticism founded by Mani, teaching a dualism between light and dark. Augustine was part of it for a while, though he later opposed it strongly.



3rd Century heresy that stresses the oneness of God to such an extent that it denies the personal distinctivenes of Son and Spirit.


Dynamic Monarchianism

says that the Father alone is God, and the SOn was merely a man who was specially endowed with the Holy Spirit.



God is one person who appears in 3 different modes.


The Great Schism

East/West division of the church in 1054
-Intellectual alienation: Greek-speaking East and Latin-speaking West came at theology differently
-Papal Authority: West asserted Pope's authority over the entire church, but East rejected it
-Filioque Controversy: West added "filioque" to the Nicene creed, saying that the Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son



16th and 17th Century movement to reform the Church in response to theological and moral decay
-Stressed salvation by grace through faith alone, authority of Scripture, and priesthood of believers


Marburg Colloquy

Meeting between Luther and Zwingli in 1529 to resolve their differences regarding the Lord's Supper which was unsuccessful.



16th Century reform of the Catholic Church and counter offensive against the Reformation


Council of Trent

1545-1563, laid the groundwork for modern Catholicism
-Centered authority in the Papacy
-Corrected abuses in the church
-Fixed Catholic doctrine in opposition to Protestantism
--Scripture and tradition are equal authorities
--Justification by grace + works



Educators and missionaries who were largely responsible for the Catholic church takin gback much of the ground it lost to the Protestants (society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius of Loyola) 1534



Catholic church's systematic fight against heretics through trial and punishment. (italy and Spain primarily) 1250

Spanish - 1478
Roman - 1542


Thirty Years War

1618-1648 war, fought primarily in Germany, which involved most of the countries of Europe. Initial cause of the conflict was the divided allegiance to Catholicism vs. Protestantism in various German territories.
-Peace of Augsburg had said that a territory's religion would be chosen by ruler. This caused many problems.
-Result: War was a stalemate, freedom granted to be Catholics or Protestants, but brought growing indifference to religion leading to the Enlighenment


Heidelberg Catechism

16th Century catechism composed in Heidelberg, Germany that teaches doctrines of Reformation
-Commissioned by Prince Fredrick III
-Primary authors were Olevianus and Ursinus


Belgic Confession

16th Century Reformed confession written in the Netherlands
-In light of Catholic persecution, sought to show that the Reformed were not rebels but held to Scripture

From CRC: The Belgic Confession, written in 1561, owes its origin to the need for a clear and comprehensive statement of Reformed faith during the time of the Spanish inquisition in the Lowlands. Guido de Brès, its primary author, was pleading for understanding and toleration from King Philip II of Spain who was determined to root out all Protestant factions in his jurisdiction. Hence, this confession takes pains to point out the continuity of Reformed belief with that of the ancient Christian creeds, as well as to differentiate it from Catholic belief (on the one hand), and from Anabaptist teachings (on the other).


2nd Helvetic Confession

16th Century confessional statement of Swiss Reformed Church written by Bullinger, that presents Calvinism as historical Christianity.


Canons of Dort

17th Century (1618-1619) document, composed by Synod of Dort in the Netherlands, which presents the 5 points of Calvinism in response to the Remonstrants


Westminster Assembly

1643-1647: Primarily composed of Puritans called by Long Parliament to advise on reforming the Church of England along Puritan and Presbyterian lines.
Westminster Confession of Faith
Westminster Larger Catechism
westminster Shorter Catechism



17 Century response to dead orthodoxy in German Lutheranism. Emphasized experimentalism in the Bible, holiness and church reform
- Zenzendorf and Philip Jacob Spenser were major leaders.


Marrow Controversy

1717-1722 Century controversy in the church of Scotland over the relationship between law and gospel in the conversion process.
Marrow men - grace freely offered to all
Neonomians - grace offered to elect only who show signs of forsaking sin


First Great Awakening

Movement of revival in American from 1735 - 1743 through the Calvinistic preaching of Edwards and Whitfield.



Writers in the 2nd and 3rd Centuries whose work primarily answers the accusations of non-Christians. Includes Justin Martyr and Tatian



2nd century movement that emphasized continuing revelation and asceticism. Tertullian became an adherent late in life.


Alexandrian School

Allegorical school of interpretation in ancient church (Clement of Alexandria and Origen)


Antionchene School

More literal school of interpretation (Chrysostom)


Cappadocian Fathers

4th Century men who are especially known for their opposition to Arianism and their theology of the Holy Spirit (Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa)



Movement that became popular after Constantine in which people withdrew from society into communities that stressed prayer, work, study, charity, and asceticism
-Life of St. Anthony by Athanasius
-Pattern from Benedict
-Important orders: Benedictine, Franciscan, Dominican, Augustinian



Medieval theological movement that used Aristotelian logic to create a theological system and embraced reason as a path to knowledge
-Famous scholastics: Peter Abelard, Peter Lombard, Thomas Aquinas
-Embraced reason as path to knowledge
-Explored relationship between Scripture and non-Christian theology, especially Aristotle
-Used dialectical method of writing, teaching, and organizing thoughts



Movement in the Renaissance and early reformation that said man was the measure of all things, encouraging a return to original sources


Radical Reformation

Movement that arose during the Reformation that wanted complete separation of church and state and experience of regeneration over forensic justification, rejected infant baptism.


Augsburg Confession

Primary confession of Lutheran faith written by Philip Melancthon and presented to Emperor Charles the V
Part of Book of Concord - Doctrinal Standard of Lutheran church



Movement that sought to purify the Church of England in 17th century, especially reacting to the form of Anglican worship (John Owen, Richard Baxter)



Heresy of the 16-18th Centuries created by Socinius, which rejected the diety of Christ, his atoning death on the cross and the foreknowledge of God
-Forerunner of modern Unitarianism and Open Theism.



19-20th Century movement centering on adapting Christian ideas to better cohere with modern culture and thought, which emphasizes reason over Scritpure as the ultimate source of knowledge


Apostolic Fathers

Writers of the 1st and 2nd Centuries who are traditionally thought to have come in contact with the apostles (Clement of Rome, Ignatius, Polycarp)


Clement of Rome

1-2nd Century bishop of Rome who wrote a letter to Corinth regarding their improper dismissal of church leaders; and is mentioned in Philippians



2nd century bishop of Antioch who wrote a series of letters to churches in Asia Minor and his way to Rome for martrydom



2nd century bishop of Smyrna, disciple of John, early Christian martyr, wrote an epistle to the Philippians



2nd century heretic who distinguished between the OT and NT gods, rejected OT and issued his own limited version of NT


Justin Martyr

2nd century apolgist who wrote 2 apologies and "Dialogue with Trypho." He defended the Christian Faith in terms that were acceptable to Greek philosophy by synthesiszing with Platonism



2nd Century opponent of Christianity later refuted by Origen



2nd century bishop of Lyons wrote "Against Heresies" directed at Gnosticism



2nd-3rd Century theologian, wrote "Apology" and "against Marciaon", wrote about the Trinity, later became a Montanist


Clement of Alexandria

2nd-3rd century theologian wrote "Stromateis", was a platonist.



3rd century bishop of Carthage, wrote "The Unity fo the Church," high view of the church, taught that baptism can only be performed by the one Catholic church ("outside the church there is no ordinary possibility of salvation")



3rd Century alexandrian theologian who was a pioneer in allegorical interpretation, and wrote the apology "Against Celsus", the first systematic theology "First Principles", and the Hexapla.



3rd-4th century bishop of Caesarea who wrote the first church history



4th Century theologian who opposed Arianism. Wrote "On the Incarnation" and "Life of Anthony"



4th Century Emperor who legalized Christiniaty and called the council of Nicea



4th century bishop of Salamis, wrote "Panarion" against all heresies known up to his day



4th-5th century bishop of Constantinople known for his preaching, exiled for opposing imperial and church politics



4th-5th century theologian best known for translating the Bible into Latin, the "Vulgate"



4th-5th century heretic who emphasized human free will and moral responsibility, denied original sin, and taught salvation through meritorious obedience. His chief opponent and critic was Augustine.



4th-5th century Bishop of Hippo, who was one of the most influential theologians in the history of the church. Wrote many works including "Confessions" and "City of God"



5th Century missionary who brought Christianity to Ireland


Gregory the Great

6th-7th century Pope whose reign inaugurated the middle ages and who greatly increased the power of the papacy. Wrote "Pastoral Rule"


John Wycliffe

14th century British theologian known as the morning star of the Reformation. Taught at Oxford, opposed transubstantiation, translated the Bible into English, and opposed papal authority


John Hus

14th-15th century Bohemian theologian who attacked clerical abuses and papal authority, emphasizing the priesthood of all believers and the authority of Scripture. He was burned at the stake.


Desiderius Erasmus

Leading Humanist of the 16th Century who wanted to reform the church through scholarship. He produced a new latin translation of the NT, wrote Diatribe on Free Will as a polemic against Luther's theology.


Martin Luther

16th century German theologian whose work was the primary catalyst for the Reformation. He recovered the doctrines of justification by faith, the ultimate authority of Scripture, and the priesthood of all believers. 95 Theses nailed to the door of Wittenburg - 1517


Philip Melanchthon

16 century associate of Luther who systematized Luther's work in the Augsburg confession and "Loci Communes"


Ulrich Zwingli

16th Century Swiss Reformer who disputed with the Anabaptists and taught the memorial view of the Lord's Supper.


John Calvin

16th century Reformer who was born in France and ministered in Geneva. Founder of modern Reformed theology, and author of "Institutes of the Christian Religion"


John Knox

16th Century Scottish Reformer, who led the reformation of the Scottish church and was heavily influetntial in the development of Presbyterian Worship and doctrine. Wrote "The Scots Confession" and the "The Book of Discipline."



Group of Scots who signed the 17th century National Covenant, protesting the English monarchy's imposition of Episcopal church government and the Book of Common Prayer upon Scotland



17the Century Dutch theologian who founded Arminianism. - Denies original sin man - Jesus makes possible the salvation of all.


Amyraut and the School of Sumur

17th century Reformed theologian and school that attempted to synthesize the Calvinist view of divine election with the Arminian view of unlimited atonement


Richard Baxter

17th Century Puritan and author of "The Reformed Pastor"


Count Zinzendorf

17th Century pietiest and founder of the Moravian Church.


Synod of Orange

529 Affirmed salvation by grace against semi-Pelagianism


Act of Superemacy

Separated Church of England from Rome - 1534


Who was the first Presbyterian minister in the US

Francis Makemie, who immigrated to the US in 1682


When and where was the first American Presbytery formed?

1706, in Philadelphia (by Francis Makemie)


When was the first American Synod formed and who formed it?

1716, formed by the Presbytery of Philadelphia



1729, the Synod of Philadelphia adopted the Westminster Standards and mandated that all ministers adhere to them


What is the Old SIde/New Side****

Was the first great schism in American Presbyterianism and took place May 27, 1741 during the 1st great awakening. The division centered over itinerant revivalist preachers who would travel outside of their own parish and presbytery to hold meetings , without getting permission from the pastors in that area. Old side being anti-revivalist New side being pro-revivalist. There was also issue of education, Old siders were strict-subscriptionists and wanted only immigrants ordained who were educated in England or at harvard or yale. While New Siders were beginning their own educational institutions such as the Log College.


When was the first GA



When was the first BCO published

1788, restructuring the church from one synod into 16 presbyteries, 3 synods and the general assembly.
- This was largely led by John Witherspoon, president of Princeton and signer of the Declaration of Independence.


What was the plan of Union

19th Century plan to unite the Presbyterian and Congregational denominations in evangelizing the Old Nortwest - Failed


Old School/New School Division****

19th century debate precipitated by the 2nd Great Awakening, which resulted in the Presbyterian church splitting into 2 denominations
-Issues were doctrine (old school was Calvinistic, and new school was more Arminian), subscription to the standards (old school was strict subscriptionism, and the new school was system subscriptionism), church polity (old school focused on denominational identity, and the new school was on interdenominational consciousness), revivalism (old school focused on conversion by the Spirit, while the New school focused on the use of means for conversion), and social reform (old school often supported slavery, and the new school supported abolition)


What was division and Reunion?

-Old and new schools each split over the issues of slavery and states' rights.
-Old and New school churches in North united to form the PCUSA, and in the south they formed the PCCSA, which would later become the PCUS.
--The New school in 1856 declared slavery a sin deserving of discipline, and in the following year the southern churches formed the United Synod of the south, breaking from the Northern churches
--The Old school in 1861 said churches must support the federal government, putting southern churches in an awkward spot, leadin gthem to form the Presbyterian Church of the Confederate States of America (PCCSA)
--In the South, Old and New School churches reunited in 1864 to from a single denomination. Became the PCUS
--In the North, Old and New School churches reunited in 1868 to form a single denomination: PCUSA


Southern Presbyterian Theologians of the 19th Century

James Henly Thornwell
Robert Lewis Dabney
Benjamin Morgan Palmer,
John L Girardeau


James Henley Thornwell

Most important churchman of the 19th century South. He debated many issues with Charles Hodge. A leading voice in the Old School South and the PCCSA.


Robert Lewis Dabney

Professor at Union Seminary (VA) who defended slavery and was largely responsible for the union of the Old and New school churhces in the South


Benjamin Morgan Palmer

Moderator of the first GA of the PCCSA


John L Girardeau

Professor at Columbia Seminary who trained black church leaders and wrote against using instruments in worship


Fellowship of St. James

A group of ministers and seminary professors who created a secret organization for the purpose of getting men with liberal views into the bible colleges, seminaries, and principle pulpits of the denomination. By the 1960s, they controlled most of the seminaries, colleges, and most influential churches, as well as the most important influential churches, committees, synods, and GA of the PCUS


4 Organizations were part of the Continuing Church movement to counteract liberalism in the PCUS

-Presbyterian Journal: vehicle for expressing the opinions of conservatives
-Presbyterian Evangelical Fellowship: formed to offset the denomination's growing disinterest in evangelism
-Concerned Presbyterians: organized to counteract liberal control of the PCUS organizational structures
-Presbyterian Churchmen United: organized to counteract liberal control of the PCUS church courts


What were the concerns of the conservatives in the PCUS

-Theological heresy stemming from a rejection of inerrancy
-Ecumenical relations, including a potential merger with the liberal United Presbyterian Church (UPCUSA)
-Elevation of the social gospel above missions and evangelism
-Ordination of women
-Moral concerns, including promotion of abortion and unbiblical views of marriage and divorce
-Misuse of Presbyterian ecclesiology, including the presbytery owning the local church's property


What happened in 1970 that moved toward the organization of the PCA?

Delegates from the four conservative organizations (Presbyterian Journal, Presbyterian Evangelical Fellowship, Concerned Presbyterians, Presbyterian Churchmen United) formed a Conservative Caucus to organize their efforts


What happened in 1971 that moved toward the organization of the PCA

A Steering Committee was formed to organize a withdrawal from the denomination


When and where did the first PCA General Assembly meet? Who were the moderator and clerk?

-1973 at Briarwood Presbyterian Church in Birmingham, AL
-Moderator: Jack Williamson
-Clerk: Morton H. Smith
-Called National Presbyterian Church for first year


What was the "joining and receiving"

At the 1982 General Assembly, the Reformed Presbyterian Church Evangelical Synod joined the PCA


What ecunemical organizations is the PCA a part of?

-NAPARC (North American Presbyterian and Reformed Council)
-NAE (National Association of Evangelicals)
-WRF (World Reformed Fellowship)


Theodore Beza

.Theodore Beza (Latin Theodorus Beza', French Théodore de Bèze or de Besze) (June 24, 1519 – October 13, 1605) was a French Protestant Christian theologian and scholar who played an important role in the Reformation. A member of the monarchomaque movement who opposed absolute monarchy, he was a disciple of John Calvin and lived most of his life in Switzerland.


William Tyndale

.William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tynsdale, Tindall, Tindill, Tyndall; c. 1494–1536) was an English scholar who became a leading figure in Protestant reform in the years leading up to his execution. He is well known for his translation of the Bible into English. He was influenced by the work of Desiderius Erasmus, who made the Greek New Testament available in Europe, and by Martin Luther.


Laelius Socinus

.Lelio Francesco Maria Sozzini or simply Lelio (Latin Laelius Socinus) (Siena, January 29, 1525 – Zürich, May 4, 1562), was an Italian Renaissance humanist and anti-Trinitarian reformer, and uncle of the better known Fausto Sozzini (Latin Faustus Socinus) from whom the Polish Brethren and early English Unitarians came to be called "Socinians".


Moses Amyrald

.Moïse Amyraut, Latin Moyses Amyraldus (Bourgueil, September 1596 – January 8, 1664), in English texts often Moses Amyraut, was a French Protestant theologian and metaphysician. He is perhaps most noted for his modifications to Calvinist theology regarding the nature of Christ's atonement, which is referred to as Amyraldism or Amyraldianism.[1][2]

4 point calvinist - no limited atonement.


Athanasian Creed

.The Athanasian Creed, or Quicunque Vult (also Quicumque Vult), is a Christian statement of belief focused on Trinitarian doctrine and Christology. The Latin name of the creed, Quicumque vult, is taken from the opening words, "Whosoever wishes". The creed has been used by Christian churches since the sixth century. It is the first creed in which the equality of the three persons of the Trinity is explicitly stated. It differs from the Nicene-Constantinopolitan and Apostles' Creeds in the inclusion of anathemas, or condemnations of those who disagree with the creed (like the original Nicene Creed).


Thirty Nine Articles

The Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion are the historically defining statements of doctrines of the Church of England with respect to the controversies of the English Reformation. First established in 1563, the articles served to define the doctrine of the Church of England as it related to Calvinist doctrine and Roman Catholic practice.[1] The full name for the articles is commonly abbreviated as the Thirty-Nine Articles or the XXXIX Articles..


Savoy Declaration.

.The Savoy Declaration is a modification of the Westminster Confession of Faith (1646). Its full title is A Declaration of the Faith and Order owned and practiced in the Congregational Churches in England. It was drawn up in October 1658 by English Independents meeting at the Savoy Palace, London. Recontructing only the parts that relate to church govt.


The Didache

.The Didache (/ˈdɪdəkiː/; Koine Greek: Διδαχή) or The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles (Didachē means "Teaching"[1]) is a brief early Christian treatise, dated by most scholars to the late first or early 2nd century.[2] The first line of this treatise is "Teaching of the Lord to the Gentiles (or Nations) by the Twelve Apostles"[3]
The text, parts of which constitute the oldest surviving written catechism, has three main sections dealing with Christian ethics, rituals such as baptism and Eucharist, and Church organization. It is considered the first example of the genre of the Church Orders.
The work was considered by some of the Church Fathers as part of the New Testament[4] but rejected as spurious or non-canonical by others,[5] eventually not accepted into the New Testament canon. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church "broader canon" includes the Didascalia, a work which draws on the Didache.


Donation of Constatine

.The Donation of Constantine (Latin, Donatio Constantini) is a forged Roman imperial decree by which the emperor Constantine I supposedly transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the Pope. Composed probably in the 8th century, it was used, especially in the 13th century, in support of claims of political authority by the papacy.


Shepherd of Hermas

.The Shepherd of Hermas (Greek: Ποιμήν του Ερμά; Hebrew: רועה הרמס‎; sometimes just called The Shepherd) is a Christian literary work of the 1st or 2nd century, considered a valuable book by many Christians, and considered canonical scripture by some of the early Church fathers such as Irenaeus.[1][2] The Shepherd had great authority in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.[3] It was bound as part of the New Testament[1] in the Codex Sinaiticus, and it was listed between the Acts of the Apostles and the Acts of Paul in the stichometrical list of the Codex Claromontanus.
The work comprises five visions, twelve mandates, and ten parables. It relies on allegory and pays special attention to the Church, calling the faithful to repent of the sins that have harmed it.


First Schism

498, both Pope Symmachus and Antipope Laurentius were elected pope. Issues over election reform and celebration of Easter. Who had support of the Ostrogothic king was key.


Fall of Rome



Byzantine Papacy

Byzantine domination of papacy. Popes required approval of Byzantine emperor. Controversies b/w pope and emperors included monotheletism and iconoclasm


Gregory 1

Pope from 590–604
Asserted papal primacy and pushed missionary activity in northern europe/England


Frankish Papacy

Pope Stephen II sought help of Frankish king against lombard invasion. King Pepin attacked Lombard and gave land to the pope, which became basis for the papal states.


Donation of Constantine

Forged document claiming that Constantine gave pope authority over rome and western part of Roman Empire.


Lorenzo Valla

In 1440 proved Donation of Constantine was forged


King Pepin

Frankish king, gave land to pope Stephen II in 756


Saeculum obscurum

904-964 - papacy controlled by corrupt family Theophylacti


Investiture Controversy

Dispute over who could appoint bishops in the Holy Roman Empire - pope or emperor. Ended w/ Concordat of Worms in 1122


Wandering popes

1257-1309 - popes forced to reside outside Rome b/c of aristocratic squabbles


Avignon Papacy

1309–1377 - French popes - Clement V - Gregory XI who moved back to Rome


Western Schism

1378–1417 - split b/w French (Avignon) and Italian (Rome) factions. 2 rival popes, 2 curias, 2 sets of cardinals. Resolved w/ council of Constance 1417


Pope Martin V

Elected by council of Constance in 1417, returned papacy to Rome in 1420



Christ has two natures but only one will. a development of the monophysite heresy. Condemned by Third Council of Constantinople in 681



Byzantine Iconoclasm 730-787
Second Council of Nicea 787 declared production of art and representations of Christ as good and right


St. Thomas Aquinas

Summa Theologica & Summa Contra Gentiles
Summa Theologica contains 'the five ways' - five proofs for existence of God
Substitution theory of atonement - major diff w/ anselm is that debt owed is not to God's honor but as a moral injustice to be righted


St. Anselm

Archbishop of Canterbury 1093-1109
Ontological Argument for Existence of God
Satisfaction Theory of Atonement - debt to God's honor


St. Francis of Assisi

Founded Franciscans - 'Order of Friars Minor'
Life of simplicity/poverty
The Primitive Rule - To follow the teachings of our Lord Jesus Christ and to walk in his footsteps


Peter Abelard

Scholastic - bringing together philosophy and theology to make God understandable
Moral Ransom theory of atonement - world needed love for Christ/God excited by supreme act of love
Limbo Infantium - Infants who die pre-baptism do not go straight to hell, as previously thought, but live in Limbo - natural bliss, but not supernatural bliss


Bernard of Clairvaux

1090-1153 - French. Helped build Cistercians.
Outlined 'Rule of the Knights Templar' at council of Troyes
Mary is mediator/intercessor for us
Emphasized Lectio Divina and contemplation
Skeptical of immaculate conception
Quoted by Calvin re: sola fide and imputed righteousness


Pope Innocent III

Oversaw 4th Crusade - conquered Constantinople
4th Lateran Council - most important council of middle ages - 1215. 70 decrees. Organized 5th Crusade.


Franciscan Order

Founded by Francis of Assisi. High value on simple life, poverty as the way of Jesus.


Diet of Worms

.1521 - Holy Roman Empire at Worms Germany. Addressed Luther - Emperor Charles V condemming Martin Luther as a heretic. Luther made his famous -" I cannot and will not recant and go against conscience...."


Aquinas's 'Five Ways'

Five proofs for the existence of God:
Argument of the Unmoved Mover - God is the cause of motion
Argument of First Cause - God is the first cause
Argument from Contingency - Necessary being whose existence is not contingent on any other
Argument from Degree - God is ultimate standard of perfection which much exist in universe
Teleological Argument - Argument from design - God is the intelligent being that directs all things to act toward an intended purpose


Ontological Argument

God is 'That than which nothing greater can be conceived' Put forward by Anselm in Proslogion 1078


Satisfaction Theory

Put forward by Anselm in "Cur Deus Homo?"
Substitutionary work of Christ, satisfying demands of divine honor.
Emphasis on God as the one owed the debt by humanity, not God paying the devil for humanity, as in the ransom theory

Anselm's view differs from later development of penal substitution: Christ satisfies our debt of honor by his honorable act, meriting a surplus of honor and therefore paying what we could not. He does not pay the penalty or suffer the punishment for us, but his honor takes away the need for punishment.


Ransom Theory

Christ offers himself as a ransom for sinners - often to the devil as the one who 'owns' sinners.


The Recapitulation Theory of atonement

Originated with Irenaeus (125-202 AD). He sees Christ as the new Adam, who systematically undoes what Adam did.


The Penal-Substitution Theory of atonement

This view was formulated by the 16th century Reformers as an extension of Anselm's Satisfaction theory. Anselm's theory was correct in introducing the satisfaction aspect of Christ's work and its necessity, however the Reformers saw it as insufficient because it was referenced to God's honor rather than his justice and holiness and was couched more in terms of a commercial transaction than a penal substitution. This Reformed view says simply that Christ died for man, in man's place, taking his sins and bearing them for him. The bearing of man's sins takes the punishment for them and sets the believer free from the penal demands of the law: The righteousness of the law and the holiness of God are satisfied by this substitution.


Moral example theory of atonement

Formulated by Peter Abelard (1079-1142) partially in reaction against Anselm's Satisfaction theory, this view was held by the 16th century Socinians.
Christ died to influence mankind toward moral improvement - his death impresses on them God's love


The Governmental Theory of atonement

God made Christ an example of suffering to exhibit to erring man that sin is displeasing to him. God's moral government of the world made it necessary for him to evince his wrath against sin in Christ. Christ died as a token of God's displeasure toward sin and it was accepted by God as sufficient; but actually God does not exact strict justice. This view was formulated by Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) and is subsequently found in Arminianism, Charles Finney, the New England Theology of Jonathan Edwards (the younger), and Methodism.


The 'Christus Victor' or Dramatic Theory of atonement

G. E. H. Aulén (1879-1977). The atonement is viewed as divine conflict and victory over the hostile powers that hold humanity in subjection. This is a modified form of the classic Ransom theory with the emphasis on Christ's victory over evil.


Auburn Affirmation of 1924

The Auburn Affirmation was a document dated May 1924, with the title "AN AFFIRMATION designed to safeguard the unity and liberty of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America", authored by an eleven-member Conference Committee and signed by 1274 ministers of the PCUSA. The Affirmation challenged the right of the highest body of the church, the General Assembly, to impose the Five fundamentals as a test of orthodoxy without the concurrence of a vote from the regional bodies, the presbyteries. In 1910, 1916, and again in 1923, the General Assembly declared that every candidate seeking to be ordained in the Presbyterian Church ought to be able to affirm
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
The virgin birth (and the deity of Jesus)
The doctrine of substitutionary atonement
The bodily resurrection of Jesus
The authenticity of Christ's miracles


Auburn Affirmation of 1924

The Auburn Affirmation was a document dated May 1924, with the title "AN AFFIRMATION designed to safeguard the unity and liberty of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America", authored by an eleven-member Conference Committee and signed by 1274 ministers of the PCUSA. The Affirmation challenged the right of the highest body of the church, the General Assembly, to impose the Five fundamentals as a test of orthodoxy without the concurrence of a vote from the regional bodies, the presbyteries. In 1910, 1916, and again in 1923, the General Assembly declared that every candidate seeking to be ordained in the Presbyterian Church ought to be able to affirm
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
The virgin birth (and the deity of Jesus)
The doctrine of substitutionary atonement
The bodily resurrection of Jesus
The authenticity of Christ's miracles



Series of wars waged by Europeans under the sanction of the Latin Catholic Church. Stated aims were usually gaining access or control over Jerusalem and the Holy Land.
People's Crusade (1096) - unsuccessful
First Crusade (1095–1099) - took Jerusalem, set up crusader states in middle east
Second Crusade (1147–1149) - took portugal from muslims
Third Crusade (1187–1192) - Saladin unites muslims, retakes Jerusalem. Crusaders try but fail to retake city. Richard I 'lionheart'
German Crusade (1195–1198)
Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) - never reached holy land - sacked Constantinople instead
Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) -
Sixth Crusade (1228–1229) - Ends with treaty allowing Xians control over most of jerusalem
Seventh Crusade (1248–1254) - Jerusalem overrun, Xians unable to retake
Eighth and Ninth Crusade (1270–1272) - Crusading states fall