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Flashcards in Osteology Deck (80)
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0

What is a ligament?

A collagen fiber band or sheet that connects bone to bone.

1

Identify this structure of cortical bone.

nutrient foramen

2

On the frontal/coronal plane, ______ is farther towards the front of the body.

anterior

3

Identify #3.

epiphyseal plate

3

On the sagittal plane, _____ is closer to the midline.

medial

3

Identify this structure of cortical bone.

Sharpey's fibers

4

On the sagittal plane, _____ is farther from the midline.

lateral

4

What is endochondral ossification?

the embryonic model for most long, short and irregular bones is a mass of dense fibrous connective tissue

  • stem cells differentiate into chondroblasts which begin laying down hyaline cartilage matrix in a pattern to replace the fibrous connective tissue model
  • then osteoclasts and blood vessels penetrate the cartilage while other stem cells follow and differentiate into osteoblasts which begin laying down bone matrix in a spongy bone pattern to replace the cartilage model
  • several such centers of ossification expand until they meet and fuse;
  • eventually the entire structure matures to have compact bone on the outer surface and to have spongy bone and possibly a marrow space in the interior

5

What is the diaphysis?

The shaft of a long bone.

5

What percentage of a bone is mineral and what is this primarily comprised of?

65% - hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate)

provides rigidity

6

What is an osteocyte?

The result of an encased osteoblast or osteoid located in a lacunae that maintains bone.

7

What is an osteoclast?

A cell that destroys bone.

8

On the transverse plane, ______ is nearer to the bottom of the body.

inferior

8

Identify this structure of cortical bone.

Haversian canal

8

What are the three types of joints?

  1. fibrous
  2. cartilaginous
  3. synovial

10

What does periosteum do?

It provides nutrient-rich blood for the bone and is the source of bone-developing cells (osteoblasts) after a fracture or during growth.

10

What type of synovial joint is this?

pivot

11

What is synovial fluid and what does it do?

An egg-white like fluid within the joint cavity that keeps the articular cartilage moist.

11

What is intramembranous ossification?

a stage of bone development in human fetuses that involves osteoblasts laying down woven bone that eventually becomes lamellar bone

the embryonic model for most flat bones and a few other bones is a sheet of dense fibrous connective tissue

  • stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts which begin laying down bone matrix in a spongy bone pattern to replace the fibrous membrane model
  • several such centers of ossification expand until they meet and fuse
  • eventually the entire structure matures to have compact bone on the outer surface and spongy bone in the interior.  

11

Identify structure #2 of trabecular bone.

red marrow space

12

What is the name of this pose?

the anatomical position

12

What type of synovial joint is this?

hinge

13

Give one example of a flat bone.

hip, parietal bone...

14

Identify structure #4 of trabecular bone.

osteocytes

15

What is articular cartilage?

Smooth, slippery, bloodless cartilage found on the end of long bones.

15

What is the name of this plane?

the coronal/frontal plane

15

On the transverse plane, ______ is farther from the midline of the body.

distal

16

What is the epiphysis?

The end of a long bone.

18

Identify #6.

compact bone

19

What is periosteum?

A fibrous, vascular, sensitive covering for a bone.