Osteology Flashcards Preview

Forensic Anthropology > Osteology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Osteology Deck (80):
0

What is a ligament?

A collagen fiber band or sheet that connects bone to bone.

1

Identify this structure of cortical bone.

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nutrient foramen

2

On the frontal/coronal plane, ______ is farther towards the front of the body.

anterior

3

Identify #3.

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epiphyseal plate

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3

On the sagittal plane, _____ is closer to the midline.

medial

3

Identify this structure of cortical bone.

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Sharpey's fibers

4

On the sagittal plane, _____ is farther from the midline.

lateral

4

What is endochondral ossification?

the embryonic model for most long, short and irregular bones is a mass of dense fibrous connective tissue

  • stem cells differentiate into chondroblasts which begin laying down hyaline cartilage matrix in a pattern to replace the fibrous connective tissue model
  • then osteoclasts and blood vessels penetrate the cartilage while other stem cells follow and differentiate into osteoblasts which begin laying down bone matrix in a spongy bone pattern to replace the cartilage model
  • several such centers of ossification expand until they meet and fuse;
  • eventually the entire structure matures to have compact bone on the outer surface and to have spongy bone and possibly a marrow space in the interior

5

What is the diaphysis?

The shaft of a long bone.

5

What percentage of a bone is mineral and what is this primarily comprised of?

65% - hydroxyapatite (calcium phosphate)

provides rigidity

6

What is an osteocyte?

The result of an encased osteoblast or osteoid located in a lacunae that maintains bone.

7

What is an osteoclast?

A cell that destroys bone.

8

On the transverse plane, ______ is nearer to the bottom of the body.

inferior

8

Identify this structure of cortical bone.

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Haversian canal

8

What are the three types of joints?

  1. fibrous
  2. cartilaginous
  3. synovial

10

What does periosteum do?

It provides nutrient-rich blood for the bone and is the source of bone-developing cells (osteoblasts) after a fracture or during growth.

10

What type of synovial joint is this?

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pivot

11

What is synovial fluid and what does it do?

An egg-white like fluid within the joint cavity that keeps the articular cartilage moist.

11

What is intramembranous ossification?

a stage of bone development in human fetuses that involves osteoblasts laying down woven bone that eventually becomes lamellar bone

the embryonic model for most flat bones and a few other bones is a sheet of dense fibrous connective tissue

  • stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts which begin laying down bone matrix in a spongy bone pattern to replace the fibrous membrane model
  • several such centers of ossification expand until they meet and fuse
  • eventually the entire structure matures to have compact bone on the outer surface and spongy bone in the interior.  

11

Identify structure #2 of trabecular bone.

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red marrow space

12

What is the name of this pose?

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the anatomical position

12

What type of synovial joint is this?

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hinge

13

Give one example of a flat bone.

hip, parietal bone...

14

Identify structure #4 of trabecular bone.

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osteocytes

15

What is articular cartilage?

Smooth, slippery, bloodless cartilage found on the end of long bones.

15

What is the name of this plane?

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the coronal/frontal plane

15

On the transverse plane, ______ is farther from the midline of the body.

distal

16

What is the epiphysis?

The end of a long bone.

18

Identify #6.

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compact bone

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19

What is periosteum?

A fibrous, vascular, sensitive covering for a bone.

20

Identify #2.

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growth plate

20

What is an osteoblast?

A cell that builds bone and produces osteoids.

20

Identify this structure of cortical bone.

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osteon

21

Identify #7.

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epiphysis

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23

What is yellow marrow?

Marrow located in the center of a bone inside the medullary cavity.

24

Identify this structure of cortical bone.

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concentric lamellae

26

What is the name of this plane?

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the saggital plane

27

Identify #5.

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periosteum

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29

What is the structure of the diaphysis?

Compact bone with a central cavity.

30

On the transverse plane, ______ is nearer to the top of the body.

superior

31

Identify #9.

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epiphysis

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32

Identify this structure of cortical bone.

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circumferal lamellae

34

What percentage of a bone is organic and what is this primarily comprised of?

35% - water & collagen

provides flexibility

35

Identify #3.

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metaphysis

35

What are the six synovial joint types?

  1. pivot
  2. ball & socket
  3. hinge
  4. condyloid/convex
  5. saddle/concave
  6. gliding

36

What is the structure of the epiphysis?

It is composed of a thin layer of compact bone and capped with articular cartilage.

38

What is the name of this plane?

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the transverse plane

39

What are the four shapes of human bones?

  1. long
  2. short
  3. flat
  4. irregular

40

What are three other names for compact bone?

  1. cortical bone
  2. lamellar bone
  3. dense bone

41

Identify structure #1 of trabecular bone.

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trabeculae

42

What type of synovial joint is this?

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ball and socket

44

What are two other names for cancellous bone?

  1. spongy bone
  2. trabecular bone

46

Identify structure #3 of trabecular bone.

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lamellae

47

Give one example of a short bone.

carpals, patella, tarsals

48

Identify #2.

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cancellous bone

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49

Identify this structure of cortical bone.

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Volkmann's canal

51

Name five functions of the skeleton.

  1. support for muscles
  2. anchors for muscular movement
  3. factory for blood
  4. storehouse for nutrients in marrow
  5. protection for organs

52

Identify this structure of cortical bone.

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canaliculi

53

What type of synovial joint is this?

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gliding

55

What is a nutrient artery?

A large artery that enters through a tunnel in the diaphysis to provide blood to the bone.

57

What is cancellous bone?

A lattice-like bone structure.

59

What is red marrow?

A substance that packs the space between the beams of some epiphyses.

60

Identify #1.

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articular cartilage

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61

What is woven bone?

An irregular or coarse type of bone that indicates healing or growing.

63

What four criteria are used to classify bones?

  1. location
  2. shape
  3. origin
  4. structure

64

Give one example of a long bone.

humerus, femur, tibia, clavicle, radius, ulna, fibula...

65

What is compact bone?

A dense bone such as that found in the diaphysis that is structures in concentric layers of solid bone.

66

What is a tendon?

A collagen fiber cord or bundle that connects muscle to bone.

67

Give one example of an irregular bone.

vertebra

68

On the frontal/coronal plane, ______ is farther towards the back of the body.

posterior

69

A skeleton that retains no structural integrity or is mixed in with other skeletons is called what?

a disarticulated or commingled skeleton

70

Identify #4.

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medullary (marrow) cavity

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71

A skeleton that retains some or all structural integrity is called what?

an articulated skeleton

73

What is the medullary cavity?

It is a channel at the center of the diaphysis that lightens the weight and holds yellow marrow.

74

On the transverse plane, ______ is nearer to the midline of the body.

proximal

75

Identify #1.

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epiphysis

76

What type of synovial joint is this?

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condyloid / convex

77

What type of synovial joint is this?

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saddle / concave

79

Identify #8.

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diaphysis

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80

Identify this structure of cortical bone.

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osteocyte in lacunae