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1

acrochondrons

(aka skins tags): pedunculated outgrowths of normal skin that are commonly present on regions affected by acanthosis nigricans

2

Asboe-Hansen sign

bullae spread laterally when pressure is applied on the top (pemphigus vulgaris)

3

Stewart Treves syndrome

cutaneous angiosarcoma 2ry to chronic lymphedema

4

Connexin defects do underilie some specific forms of

palmoplantar keratoderma or deafness associated ichthyosis

5

Autoantibodies against cutaneous basement membrane protein

epidermolysis bulosa acquisita (forms tesne acral bullae) and cicatricial pehugoid (causes chronic conjunctiva + scarring)

6

cafe au lait spotes - histology

increased melanosomes aggregates within melatocytes

7

postinflammatory hypopigmentation

redistribution of existing melanin within the skin (associated with reduced transfer of melanin in keratinocytes)

8

Toblestone cells

along basal layer in pemphigus vulgaris

9

gluten enteropathy - age of rash

40-50

10

most important prognostic factor for melanoma

Depth of invasion (Breslow thickness: distance from epidermal granular cell layer to the deepest visible melanoma cell)

11

aggressive and destructive arthritis of psoriasis

arthritis mutilants

12

melanoma in situ (and special characteristics in histology)

lentigno maligna (contain mulinucleated giant melanocytes)

13

type of melanocytic nevi - according to location

1. junctional: along dermoepidermal junction (flat)
2. Compound nevi: nevus cells exnted into dermis - epidermal + dermal involvement (raised papiles)
3. Intradermal: nevi in the dermis + raised (lose of tyrosinase activity --> little or no pigmented)

14

aggressive and destructive arthritis of psoriasis

arthritis mutilants

15

categories of xanthomas

1. eruptive xamthomas (yellow papules that abruptly appear wen plasma TG and lipids increase)
2. tuberous and tendinous xanthomas
3. plane xanthomas (lienar lesions in skin folds, associated with primary biliary cirrhosis)
4. xanthalesma (soft eyelid or perioribital, not associated with lipid abnormalities)

16

Marjolin's ulcer?

it is an aggressive, ulcerating squamous cell carinoma that presents in an areia of previously traumatised, chronically inlamef, or scarred skin (more than 10 years after initial trauma)

17

spider angiomas - presentation

bright red central papule surrounded by several outwardly radiating vessels that blanch with pressure and refill centrifugally uppon release
(associated with increased estrogen states)

18

Ecchymoses frequently indicate

a deep hemorrhage (hematoma due to bony fracture, ligamentous rupture, or mucular injury --> they do not blanch under pressure as the RBCs are not contained within the vasculature

19

petechiae vs purpura vs ecchymoses according to size

1. less than 5 mm
2. 5mm - 1 cm
2. more than 1 cm

20

molloscum bodies?

eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions due to molluscum contagiosum infection

21

mutated BRAF in melanoma - action (vs normal)

activation of BRAF (independent to NRAS) --> nuclear replication --> increased cellular growth, differentiation, survival --> metastasis
in normal melanocutes --> NRAS --> BRAF --> .....

22

intertigo?

well defined erythematous plaques with satellite vesiclees or pustules in warm, moist skin areas - due to Candida after antibiotic use or immunocompromised (esp uncontrolled diabetes)

23

skin dyskeratosis

premature keratinization of indicudual keratinozutes below the stratum granulosum

24

chronic exposure of an type 4 hypresensitivity induced antigen

acantosis + hyperkeratosis

25

primay of HIV - area of maculopopular rash

everywhere (and palm + sole)

26

cutaneous small vessel vasculitis?

affects only skin, arises due to drug (eps penicillins) or pathogen exposure
biopsy: neutrophils (in first day) + mononuclear cells (in older lesions

27

Seborrheic dermatitis

common inflammatory condition characterised by accumulation of scaly, greasy skin on the scalp, face, ears, eyelids + eyebrows
severe in HIV + Parkinson

28

intergluteal piloidal disease

it is an azquired skin infection invovling the upper natal cleft od the buttocks - it may present with drainage sinus tract

29

local cutaneous adcverse effect of chronic topical corticosteroid administration

atrophy/thinning of the dermis (loss of dermal collagen, drying, tightening of the skin, telangiectasias, ecchymoses)

30

Dress syndrome - presenation/due to

presentation: fever, generalized lymphadenopahty, facial edema,, diffuse morbilliform skin rash, eosinophylia, atypical lymphocytes, increasd lier enzymes
due to: antiepileptics, ALLOPURINOL, sulfonamides, antibiotics