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Flashcards in Other Systems Deck (67):
1

What is HIV/AIDS?
What are the symptoms of HIV?
What are the symptoms of AIDS?

caused by virus that weakens immune system
reduced CD4 helper T cells

HIV symptoms - flu like; fever and chills, night sweats, swollen lymph glands, loss of appettie and wt loss, diarrhea, fatigue, infections

AIDS - infections, malignancies, neruo conditions, deconditioning, anxiety, depression

2

What is the exs protocol for AIDS patietns?

postpone during acute infections
3-4 days/wk
40-60% intensity
30-60min per day
8-10 reps for resistance
avoid exhaustive exs

3

What is PT management consist of for chronic fatigue syndrome?

reduced activities when fatigue at max
bed rest contraindicated other than for sleep
exs - low intensity, 3-5 days/wk, 5 min progressing to 40-60min
prevent deconditioning
maintain function

4

What is fibromyalgia?
What is the diagnosis criteria?

widespread pain, fatigue with sleep, memory and mood disturbances

Dx - pain for at least 3 months, 11/18 tender points

5

What is PT management for fibromyalgia?

aerobic exs - 2-30 min progressing to 30-40, 2x/wk
aquatic
stress reduction
enviro adjustments

6

What are staph infections?
types?

localised infection via bacterial invasion, entry through skin wound, ulcer, burns

MRSA - patient isolated, use PPE
VRSA

7

What are the types of hepatitis? How are they transmitted?

A - acute illness, not chronic ; fecal-oral transmission contracted through food/water, person to person

B - mild to severe (may lead to chrnoic liver infection/cirrhosis, necrosis) ; transmitted through blood, body fluids, tisues, blood transfusion, oral or sexual contact, needles

C - acute to chronic ; transmitted a/a

D - rare ; transmitted a/a

8

What are the phases of hepatitis? Symptoms?

initial phase - low fever, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, fatigue, malaise, HA, abdo pain and tenderness

jaundice phase - fever, jaundice, enlarged liver and tenderness, abatement of earlier symptomes

9

What is tuberculosis and its symptoms?

airbourne infectious disease; use face mask!

symptoms
Pulmonary - productive cough > 3wks, rales, dyspnea, chest pain, hemoptysis
Systemic - fatigue, fever, chills, night sweats, anorexia, wt loss

10

What are signs and symptoms of hematological disorders?

easy bruising
spontaneous petachiae
external hematomas
orthostatic changes; drop in systolic >10, pulse and HR increase

11

What is the etiology of anemia?

decreased hemoglobin levels

decreased RBC production: nutritional deficiency (iron, vit B, folic acid), cell maturation defects, decreased bone marrow stimulation (hypothyroidism), bone marrow failure (leukemia, neoplasm), genetic defect

decreased RBCs: autom=immune hemolysis, sicle cell, enzyme defects, hypersplenism, parasites, chronic disease (RA, TB, Ca)

decreased blood: trauma, wound, bleeding, peptic ulcer, excessive menstruation

12

What are the symptoms of anemia?

fatigue, weakness, dyspnea, pallor, yellow skin, tachycardia, bleeding of gums, mucous membrane or skin bleeding in absence of trauma, hypoxic damage to liver, kidney, heart failure

13

What is sickle cell disease? Symptoms?

inherited, autosomal recessive RBC disorder
erythrocytes and hemoglobin are abnormal

symptoms - pain, Ha, dizziness, convulsions, coma, nystagmus, chest pain, coughing, dyspnea, tachypnea

14

What is PT management for sickle cell?

pain control
warmth to soothe, hydro
relaxation
low-mod exs
CONTRA - cold due to vasoconstriction and sickling

15

What is hemophilia? Symptoms?

Inherited recessive disorder of blood coagulation

symptoms - decreased ROM, stiffening, pain, swelling, tenderness, heat, prickling/tingling

16

What is PT management of hemophilia?

Acute - RICE, prevent deformity

subacute - factor replacement best before Rx, AAROM progressing to iso and open chain exs, pain mx, contracture mx
RED FLAG - PROM rarely used due to risk of myositis ossifcations

chronic - maintain ROM and aerobic fitness

17

What are warning signs of cancer?

unusual bleeding
lump or thickening area
sore that doesnt heal
change in bladder/bowel habits
persistant cough
difficulty swallowing, indeigestion
change in size/appearance of skin mole
unexplained wt loss
night pain

18

What are the stages of cancer?

0 - carcinoma in situ
1 - localised tumor,

19

What is PT management of cancer patients?

positioning, prevent deformities
skin integrity
edema control
massage
pain control, TENS
maintain ROM
maintain strength, isometric, isotonic (RED FLAGS - bony mets, OP, low platelet

20

What are the contraindications to exs for cancer patients?

within 24 hours of intravenous chemo
severe reaction to radiation
acute infection
severe nausea, vomit, diarrhea within 36 hours
unusual fatigue, weakness, recent bone pain
severe dyspnea
chest pain, abnormal HR, high BP
swelling in ankles
dizziness, HA, confusion, blurred vision, ataxia

21

What are the precautions to exs for cancer patients?

PLT count

22

What are the signs and symptoms of gastrointenstinal issues?

nausea and vomiting
diarrhea
constipation
anorexia
dysphagia
heartburn
abdo pain
GI bleeding

23

What is GERD? Symptoms/RED FLAGS?
PT intervention?

reflux, heartburn

RED FLAGS - atypical pain in head and neck, chest pain, resp symptoms of wheezing, chronic cough, laryngeal injury, hoarsness

Pt - positional changes, dont do valsalva, lifestyle changes

24

What is a hiatal hernia?

protrusion of stomach upward through diaphragm

25

What is gastritis? What is acute and chronic?

inflammation of stomach mucosa

acute - severe burns, aspirin, NSAIDS, corticosteroids, food alergies, infections

chronic - peptic ulcer, infections, cancer, thyroid disease, Addisons

26

What is peptic ulcer? Symptoms?

ulcer lesions in upper GI that are exposed to acid-pepsin secretions

symptoms - epigastric pain gnawing, burning, cramps, increase pain with change of position, pain relieved with food or antacids, weakness, dizzy, hemorrhage

pain may radiate as back pain, right SH pain
stress and anxiety increase pain

27

What are symptoms and red flags of malabsorption syndroms (CF, Crohns, celiac, pancreitis..)

symptoms - anorexia, wt loss, abdo bloating, pain, cramps, indigestion, steatorrhea, diarrhea

red flags -
iron deficiecy anemia
vit K deficiency causing easy bruising and bleeding
muscle weakness and fatigue due to lack of protein, iron, folic acid, vit B
bone loss, pain, fracture due to lack of calcium, vit D, phosphate
neuropathy from lack of calcium, vit B and D, magnesium, potassium
muscle spasm from electrolyte and lack of calcium
peripheral edema

28

What is Crohn's disease?
What is ulcerative colitis?

What are the symptoms? red flags?

Crohn's - granulomatous inflammation anywhere in GI, skip lesions present

UC - ulcerative and exudative inflam of large intestine and rectum, no skip lesions, bloody diarrhea, musus, pus

symptoms - abdo pain, frequent diarrhea, fecal urgency, wt loss

red flags - joint pain, skin rashes, referred pain to low back, intestinal obstruction and corticosteroid toxicity, malnutrition

29

What is irritable bowel syndrome? Symptoms?

increased motility of small and large intestine due to stress and certain foods

symptoms - abdo pain relieved by defecation, constipation, bloating, abdo cramps, flatulence, nausea, anorexia, low back pain

regular physical activity helps

30

What is diverticulosis and diverticulitis? Symptoms?

diverticulosis - herniation of mucosal layer of colon through muscularis layer; minimal symptoms, rectal bleeding

diverticulitis - inflammation of one or more herias; pain, cramping in lower left quadrant, nausea, vomit, fever, elevated WBCs, back pain

regular exs helps

31

What is appendicitis? Symptoms? Red flags?

inflammation of vermiform appendix

symptoms - abrupt loacalised pain, increases intensity, rebound tenderness, McBurney's point, lower right quadrant pain

red flag - WBC >20,000, need surgery

32

What is peritonitis? Symptoms?

inflammation of peritoneum, serous membrane of lining walls of abdo cavity

symptoms - abdo distension, pain, rebound tenderness, decreased bowel sounds, nausuea, vomit, tachycardia

33

What are hemorrhoids? Symptoms?

varicosities in lower rectum or anus

symptoms - local irritation, pain, rectal bleeding and itching

34

What is preeclampsia? Symptoms? Mx?

pregnancy induced, acute hypertension after 24th week

symptoms - hypertension, edema, sudden excessive wt gain, HA, visual disturbances, hyperreflexia

immediate physician referral

35

What is PT management post C section?

TENS for pain, electrodes parallel to incision
prevent pulmonary complications
gentle abdo exs with pillow over incision
kegals
precautions lifint 4-6 weeks
ambulation
friction massage

36

What is endometriosis? symptoms?

ectopic growth of function of endometrial tissue outside of uterus

symptoms - pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, infertility, back pain

37

What is prostatitis? symptoms?

infection and inflammation of prostate gland

symptoms - urinary frequency, urgency, nocturia, fever chills, malaise, myalgia, pain lower abdo, back, sacrum, groin

38

What type of UTI's are there? Symptoms?

Lower UTI in bladder or urethra
symptoms - urinary frequency, burning while urinating, urine cloudy and foul smelling, pain in suprapubic, lower abdo, groin

Upper UTI in kidneys
symptoms - fever, chills, malaise, HA, tenderness over kidneys/low back or costovertebal angle, frequent/burning urination, vomiting

39

What is renal cystic disease and its symptoms?

cysts along nephron

symptoms - pain, hematuria, hypertension, fever

40

What are the symptoms of kidney stones?

radiating pain to lower abdo, bladder, perineal
nausea
vomit
skin cool and clammy

41

What is kidney failure? Red flags?

acute or chronic - loss of kidney function due to infection or obstruction, diabetes, uncontrolled HTN

RED FLAGS
dizziness, HA, anxiety, memory loss, inability to concentrate, convulsions, coma
HTN, dyspnea, HF
peripheral and pulmonary edema
neuropathy, cramping, restless legs
osteomalacia, OP, bone pain, fracture
skin allor, ecchymosis, pruritis, dry
anemia
decreased endurance, functional losses
decreased HR, BP, orthostatic hypertension

42

What is dialysis? PT contraindications?

process of diffusing blood across semipermeable membrane for removal of toxic substances, maintain fluids, electrolyte and acid-base balance

contraindicated to take BP at shunt site

43

What are the types of urinary incontinence? What is associated with each?
Stress
Urge
Overflow
Functional

Stress - sudden release of urine; laxity of pelvic muscles, physical activity

Urge - inability to delay voiding; detrusor muscle instability

Overflow - continuously leaks secondary to urinary retention; distended bladder or incomplete emptying, anatomical obstruction

Functional - leakage associated with inability to toilet due to impaired cognition, physical function, enviro barriers

44

What is the function of Insulin?
glucagon?
amylin?
somatostatin?

insulin - allows uptake of glucose from blood

glucagon - stimulates glucose production

amylin - modulates nutrient delivery, suppresses release of glucagon

somatostatin - depress secretion of insulin and glycagon, decreases motility, secretion, absorption of GI

45

What is metabolic syndrome? Four characteristics for diagnosis?

clustor of factors that increase risk of heart disease, stroke, DM2

high abdo circumference > 40men >35 women
high cholesterol >150 triglycerides, 135-85
high blood sugar fasting >100

46

What is DM1 and DM2?

DM1 -
insulin dependent on injection, pump, inhale
insulin secretion deficiency
juvenille
prone to ketoacidosis

DM2 -
adult onset
insulin resistant
inappropriate glucagon secretion

47

What are the signs of DM?

increased blood sugar/hyperglycemia
sugar in urine
increased urination
thirst, dry mouth
hunger
fatigue
blurred vision
HA
unexplained wt loss

48

What are exs guidelines for DM?

hypoglycemia?
hyperglycemia?

ACSM-
50-80%, RPE 12-16, 3-7days, 20-60min
resistance - 2-3days, 60-80%, 2-3sets, 8-12reps

hypoglycemia
do not exs >70 glucose level
15g carb every hour
avoid exs 2-4 hours post injection

hyperglycemia
no exs glucose level 300
eat 2 hours prior
hydrate
dont exs alone or extreme temps

49

What are the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia vs hyperglycemia?

Hypoglycemia
most common
rapid onset
pallor
shaky
fatigue
excessive hunger
dizzy
fainting
PROVIDE SUGAR

Hyperglycemia
gradulal onset
fruity odor to breath
excessive thirst
decreased appetite
IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION

50

What is BMI? How do you calculate it? What are the ranges?

BMI = wt(kg) / ht squared (cm)

normal 18-24
overwt 25-29
obese >30
morbid >40

51

What are PT exs and testing guidelines for obesity?

testing -
2-3 METS, leg/arm ergo

exs -
40-60% increasing to 50-70%
5-7 days
30-60min
aerobic, circuit, short rests
aquatic

52

What is hypothyroidism? Symptoms? Red flags?

metabolic processes are slowed due to decreased thyroid hormone secretion

symptoms - weight gain, lathargy, dry skin and hair, low blood pressure, constipation, intolerance to cold and goiter, myalgia, proximal muscle weakness

red flags - exs intolerance, weakness, apthy, myalgia, reduced CO

53

What is hyperthyroidism? Symptoms? Red flags?

metabolic processes accelerated due to enlarged thyroid

symptoms - nervousness, hyperreflexia, tremor, hunger, wt loss, fatigue, heat intolerance, palpiations, tachycardia, diarrhea, Grave's disease

red flag - exs intolerance, fatigue

54

What is Addison's disease? Signs?

decreased production of cortisol and aldosterone from the adreanal insufficiency

signs -
increased bronze pigment
weakness
anorexia, wt loss, dehydration
anxiety, depression
decreased tolerance to cold
intolerance to stress

55

What is Cushing's disease? Signs?

chronic, excessive cortisol production

signs -
decreased glucose tolerance
round moon face
obesity
decreased sex hormones
muscle atrophy
edema
hypokalema
emotional changes

56

What is anxiety? Symptoms?

fight or flight accompany responses of
increased HR, dyspnea, hyperventilation, dry mouth, GI symptoms, palpiatations

57

What are red flags of depression?

loss of interest in usual pleasurable outlets
poor appetite, wt loss or gain
insomnia, hypersomnia, decreased energy
agitation, fatigue, irritability
worthlessness, guilt, hopelessness
impaired concentration
suicidal

58

What are signs of schizophrenia?

disordered thinking, speech, perception
inappropriate of affect
functional disturbances
little insight

59

Where does the gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine and stomach refer pain to?

mid back and scapular regions

60

Where does the esophagus refer pain to?

mid back

61

Where does the diaphragm, liver, or pericardium refer pain?

shoulder

62

Where does the appendix, colon, pelvic viscera refer pain?

low back, pelvis, sacrum

63

What is a cystocele?
Rectocele?
Enterocele?
Uterine prolapse?
Urethrocele?

cystocele - bladder pushing into vagina

rectocele - rectum pushing into vagina

enterocele - peritoneal sac containing part of small bowel pushes into vagina

uterine prolapse - uterus pushes into vagina

urethrocele - urethra into the vagina

64

What is associated with
Hypokalemia?
Hyperkalemia?

Hypokalemia
muscle weakness, aches, fatigue, cardiac arrythmias from diarrhea, vomit, metabolic acidosis

Hyperkalemia
weakness, arrythmias from renal fail, kidney disease, metabolic acidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis, sickle cell

65

What is associated with
Hyponatremia?
Hypernatremia?

Hyponatremia
confusion, signs of increased intracranial pressure, poor coordination from water intoxication

Hypernatremia
circulatory congestion, pulmonary edema, HTN, tachycardia from water deficits

66

What is associated with
Hypocalcemia?
Hypercalcemia?

Hypocalcemia
muscle cramps, tetany, spasms, irritability from hyperphosphatemia, hypeoparathyroidism, vit D deficiency, alkalosis

Hypercalcemia
confusion, fatigue, increased urination from hyperparathyroidism, tumors, hyperthyroidism

67

What is associated with
Hypomagnesemia?
Hypermagnesemia?

Hypomagnesemia
hyperirritability, confusion from renal disease, hepatic cirrhosis, pancreitis

Hypermagnesemia
hyporeflexia, confusion, lethargy, weakness from renal fail, diabetic acidosis, hypothyroidism, Addison's disease