Outcome 1 (Principles Of Preventative Medicine) Flashcards Preview

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1. What are the key ways in which Preventative Medicine can be promoted in a medical setting?

Posters on the walls of the waiting room; advice leaflets on display; improving the workplace environment to enable healthy choices


2. What might The NHS's approach to Health Promotion involve?

Dissemination of information to the public through campaigns to eat healthily (ensuring a balanced and non fatty diet with plenty of fruit and vegetables), as well as recommendations to take regular exercise, cut down on alcohol and stop smoking


3. What are seven key health problems that health promotion and Preventative Medicine might target?

Pulmonary rehabilitation, cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, childhood and adult infections, sexual health, and sometimes chronic disease management (particularly weight management)


4. What are 4 key factors to reduce the risk of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease?

Diet - eating healthily
Weight - ensure a healthy BMI
Smoking - stop
Exercise - regular physical activity


5. Eight factors that can reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases

Not smoking, choosing healthy foods, low salt intake, regular physical activity, keeping weight and waist size down, drinking alcohol in moderation, keeping blood pressure under control, keeping cholesterol levels under control


6. What are two key environmental risk factors for COPD

Exposure to certain gases or fumes in the workplace, or exposure to heavy amounts of second-hand smoke and pollution


7. What are the differences between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes?

Type 1 - the body cannot produce insulin (considered to be congenital)

Type 2 - cells don't respond properly to insulin (acquired)


8. What is the test that can be done to screen for diabetes, as well as to determine blood sugar levels and monitor existing diabetic conditions?

FBS (Fasting Blood Sugar)


9. Seven key areas of health promotion

Holiday and Travel Health, Skin Care, Food and drink, Immunisations, Safe sex, Medications, Regular Exercise


10. What kind of advice may be given about holiday and travel health?

How best to try and avoid the onset of disease, awareness of prevalent diseases in the region being visited, advice about jet lag etc


11. What kind of advice may be given about skincare?

High factor sunscreens should be worn by everyone when out in the sun. Especially important for babies and young children, fair skinned people, people who lie out in the sun for long periods, the elderly. It's still possible to burn when in the shade, and in hot countries this can even happen when the weather is overcast or windy. Moisturising after being out in the sun is also important.


12. What advice may be given about food and drink?

Make sure you have safe drinking water, and make sure any ice used is from a safe source. Fatty and greasy foods should be consumed with caution, as well as seafood and very spicy food.


13. What advice may be given about Immunisations?

Check whether the country you are visiting requires any vaccinations before entry (e.g. Yellow fever, malaria or hepatitis a). This should be done in plenty of time before you go so you can complete a course of medication if necessary before departure.


14. What advice may be given about safe sex?

Make sure you always have access to condoms or are on the pill, or abstain if not in a secure relationship.


15. What advice may be given about Medications?

Make sure if going on holiday that you have a large enough supply to last you. Also check any regulations regarding Medications before flying.


16. Name at least 5 types of exercise that may be recommended through health promotion?

Running, walking, yoga, tai chi (qui gong), dance, self defence, cycling, joining an allotment group to help grow your own fruit and veg, swimming, gentle exercise classes, low level circuit sessions, visiting museums or art galleries


17. Name 3 ways a Medical Administrator could help promote health in a workplace setting

Procuring and displaying suitable leaflets or posters, organise (with permission) Health Awareness Days, tagging medical records so opportunist advice can be given by the appropriate clinicians, for instance regarding smoking cessation or diabetes control


18. What are the responsibilities of a medical administrator regarding flu jabs?

Keeping a register detailing which patients need flu jabs (over 60s,but also people with compromised immune systems). This makes it easier to request them to attend flu clinics, or making arrangements for housebound patients


19. Why should you always gain permission before displaying advisory information for patients?

If the wrong advice were given this could result in disciplinary action. In the worst case, your Consultant of GP is liable for their employees actions and this could result in a complaint against you and your employer, and could end in them being sued


20. What is the purpose of screening tests?

To find specific diseases and conditions that have not yet been diagnosed in individuals. Early identification can be key in making treatment as successful as possible. Individuals who are screened are usually in a group within the population which is at a high risk of developing the disease being screened for


21. Name two female specific screening tests

Cervical cytology (smear tests to scan for cervical cancer or HPV) offered after the age of 25
Mammograms to scan for breast cancer (offered 50-70)


22. Name a male specific screening test

PSA (Prostate specific antigen) to screen for early stage prostate cancer


23. Name a key factor that makes screening important

It may identify a disease before the onset of signs and symptoms, allowing earlier diagnosis and treatment to begin quickly, thereby preventing complications.


24. What are 4 key areas of medicine where screening is offered?

Maternity services, child health, cardiovascular risk, pulmonary function


25. What are the main screening tests given in maternity services

Weight and blood pressure, blood tests for anaemia, immunity profiles and regular urine tests for proteins and infections. Also ultrasounds at various stages of the pregnancy to screen the mother's and baby's progress and stability. Early screening for sickle cell anaemia and thalassemia before 10 weeks of pregnancy. As well as HIV, Hepatitis B and syphilis


26. What is the purpose of the Dating Scan at 10 to 14 weeks of pregnancy?

Taking basic measurements so an estimate delivery date can be given. Also checks for foetal development as it can show problems such as limb deformities.


27. What is the purpose of the Anomaly Scan at 18 to 22 weeks of pregnancy?

Again measurements are taken, but this will also focus on and spot things such as cleft palate, spina bifida, or brain, heart and organ abnormalities. At this scan the gender of the baby can be determined.


28. What is the purpose of a Private Viability scan at 5 to 11 weeks? (Can be requested)

Confirms the possibility of the pregnancy.


29. What is the purpose of the nuchal translucency test during pregnancy?

Offered to mothers over 35, and detects risk factors for Downs Syndrome. This then allows the parent to decide whether to progress to amniocentesis or not.


30. What are the key screening tests offered in the area of child health?

Weighing and measuring for babies to assess development and for nutritional screening. Height, length and head circumference should be measured monthly, and three monthly in older children if there are concerns. There is also the Phenylketonuria test (formerly Guthrie's) that tests for this serious allergy to phenylalanine, present in protein rich foods like milk, eggs, fish, cheese and meat. Special diet is required.