Outcome 3 (Role And Function Of Diagnostic Departments) Flashcards Preview

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1. What are the 4 sections a Pathology Department is split into?

Microbiology, Haematology, Biochemistry, Histopathology/Cytology

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2. What is Microbiology?

Branch of biology that studies micro-organisms and their effect on humans. The cause and management of infectious disease caused by the different kinds of pathological microorganisms. Sometimes overlaps with parasite study.

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3. What are 3 common tests carried out by the Microbiology department?

- Serology test for antibodies in the blood
- Virology test for herpes
- Screening for MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus)

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4. What is Haematology?

Study of blood. Blood tests are taken to diagnose a range of diseases, as well as to monitor progress during treatment. Linked to the blood Bank, which holds emergency supplies of fresh blood products.

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5. What is the most common test performed within Haematology?

FBC (Full Blood Count)

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6. What is Biochemistry?

Study of chemical substances and vital processes occuring in living organisms. Chemical reactions can range from balancing of the endocrine system to storage of human memory. Finds ways to fight infection better on a molecular level.

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7. What are 3 common tests carried out in Biochemistry?

LFT (Liver Function Test)
Calcium (bone profile)
Ferritin (Iron Profile)

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8. What is Histopathology/ Cytology?

Histopathology is the study of tissue disease. Deals with biopsies (live tissue being removed and examined)

Cytology is the study of cells. Cells are examined from fluids.

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9. What are common tests carried out in Histopathology?

- Skin biopsy excision of a suspicious mole
- FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration) of tissue in suspicion of cancer

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10. What are common tests carried out in Cytology?

MSU (Midstream Specimen of Urine), extraction of pleural fluid or sputum, WCC (white cell count) for cancer or precancerous changes

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11. What do all specimens need to be labelled with?

Patient's name, date of birth, hospital number, and the test required

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12. What is the role of a Pathologist?

In charge of the department and reports on findings of tests. Also carries out post-mortems.

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13. What is the role of a Laboratory Technician?

Sets out equipment and cleans and safely disposes of equipment after use- may also set up some tests.

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14. What is the role of a Scientific Officer?

In charge of preparing samples, carrying out tests, reading results and reporting the findings to the Pathologist

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15. What is the role of a Haematologist?

In charge of investigations and treatment of abnormal conditions of the blood

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16. What is the role of a Phlebotomist?

Takes blood from a patient ready for it to be tested in the Pathology department

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17. What are 6 common tests that would be carried out in the Pathology department in general?

FBC (Full Blood Count)
LFTs (Liver Function Tests)
TFTs (Thyroid Function Tests)
U&Es (Urea & Electrolytes)
MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume)
ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate)

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18. What are 8 key tests that take place in the Clinical Imaging Department?

- General or simple X-ray
- MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
- CAT or CT (Computerised Axial Tomography or Computed Tomography)
- PET (Positron Emission Tomography)
- DEXA bone scan for osteoporosis
- Bone Scan - skeletal scintigraphy
- Ultrasound
- Use of contrast mediums

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19. What is a General/ Simple X-Ray, and what is its purpose?

One dimensional and allows x-rays of the body to be taken based on shadows.
Can show chest infections, bone fractures, and can be enhanced using a contrast medium such as barium. Short X-ray pulses illuminate the body or limb, with a radiographic or photographic plate behind

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20. What safety precautions must be taken during an X-ray?

Patients and staff must be protected from the harmful radiation, so the patient will be left alone while the X-ray is taken

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21. What is the role of a radiographer?

To operate the X-ray machine; pictures must be taken at all angles, so the patient needs to be positioned and the machine set up correctly. After the images have been made the radiographer must check they are clear.

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22. What is the role of the radiologist?

Writes the final report on the findings of the x-ray

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23. What is the role of administrative staff within the Clinical Imaging Department?

Appointments need to be organised and sent out for specific imaging and details entered onto the computerised system. Staff would also be expected to welcome patients on arrival for their appointment

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24. What are the precautionary measures taken to protect staff from the effects of radiation?

They are shielded while the X-ray is taken; they wear counters to monitor the amount of radiation they have been exposed to, and are removed from the area if the levels become too high; red lights warn people not to enter a room while an X-ray is taken.

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25. What measures are taken to protect the public from radiation?

The walls of the X-ray department are built very thick; warning signs are displayed prominently; female patients are asked the date of their last period (as radiation can be harmful in pregnancy); correct dosage of radiation is always used; protective shields are used for parts of the body ie reproductive organs

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26. What is an MRI and how does it work?

Uses magnetism to build up a picture of the inside of the body. Creates cross-section pictures. Shows up soft tissues and a single scan can produce many pictures from different angles. Can be affected by movement (even swallowing or coughing)

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27. What are CAT or CT scans and how do they work?

Computerised pictures taken at pre set intervals throughout the body which layer up to form a 3D image. This is an aid to diagnosis as it can identify tumours, and trauma to the brain (through bleeding). It can be used together with an injected contrast medium to show individual blood vessels

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28. What is Positron Emission Tomography and how does it work?

PET scans are used to produce 3D images. These can highlight how some bodily functions work. They can be used to diagnose cancers, how far a cancer may have spread, or whether it is responding to treatment.

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29. What is a bone scan and how does it work?

Nuclear scanning tests. Radioactive material is injected into a vein, which travels through the blood to organs and bones. The radiation is then detected by a camera. Commonly used in the detection of bone disease.

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30. What is a DEXA?

Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Measures bone density (can diagnose osteoporosis)