Flashcards in Outcome 2 (Principles Of Infection) Deck (28)
1. What is a pathogenic microorganism?
An organism of microscopic size, too small to be seen, and usually a bacterium or virus. Can also be a fungus or protozoa, which causes disease.
2. What is bacteria?
A single cell or non-cellular organism
3. What is a virus?
Replicates itself only within the cells of living hosts
4. What is a fungus?
These could be yeasts or moulds, distinct from green plants.
5. What is a protozoa?
A single cell organism that can only divide within a host.
6. What are 5 key ways pathogenic micro-organisms might enter the body?
Inhalation, ingestion, inoculation, bodily fluids, via the placenta
7. What are the different ways a pathogenic microorganism could be taken into the body through inhalation?
The drawing in of air or other gases, transmitted by airborne infection- the transmission of an infectious agent suspended in the air
Droplet infection- this is when an infection in contained in droplets of moisture expelled through a sneeze, cough or vomit
Taken into the lungs when inhaling vomit
8. What are the different ways a pathogenic microorganism might be taken into the body via ingestion?
Taken into the digestive tract when eating or drinking via fingers or fomites (inanimate objects capable of carrying infection) or on utensils.
By eating or drinking contaminated food or liquids
9. How would a pathogenic microorganism enter the body through inoculation?
Through injuries that penetrate the skin (ie needle stick injuries or the use of contaminated needles)
10. How would pathogenic microorganisms enter the body via bodily fluids?
Semen or blood
11. How would pathogenic microorganisms enter the body through the placenta?
Cross infection between mother and baby during pregnancy.
12. What is the difference between a sign and a symptom?
Sign= observed by another (medical professional)
Symptom= observed by the patient
13. What are 5 key signs that show infection?
Increased temperature, increased breathing rate, elevated white cell count, fever, redness and swelling
14. What are 6 key symptoms of infection?
Pain, malaise (tiredness), nausea, pyrexia (fever), headache, hot and cold shivers
15. What does COSHH stand for?
Control Of Substances Hazardous to Health
16. What does PPE stand for?
Personal Protective Equipment
17. When should you use PPE (for instance gloves)
When handling specimens
18. Where should specimens be stored?
A safe appropriate place away from the patient area- they should also be transported to the lab ASAP and in the specified manner
19. What are two precautions that should be taken when sealing specimens in containers?
Make sure the lid of the container is securely on to avoid spillage
Make sure there is no contamination of the specimen from outside the container
20. What should you wear if there is a risk of specimens splashing or spraying?
Wear a mask or goggles
21. What are 6 precautionary steps you should always take as a medical professional to avoid cross contamination?
- Wash hands before and after dealing with patients
- Standard disposal of clinical waste (yellow bag or sharps box directly after use)
- If bedding required, should be fresh and disposable (new for each patient)
- Use of disposable roll on examination tables and wiping surfaces after each patient
- Use PPE when cleaning spillages and have a dedicated spillage cleaning kit
- carry out infection control daily in all areas
22. What are the 6 steps to cleaning up bodily fluids?
- WASH HANDS!!
- PPE must be worn
- Safety signs must be displayed
- Specialised cleaning utensils must be used
- The use of granules or sand
- The use of disinfectant
23. What colour bin bag for general waste?
24. What colour bin bag for clinical waste?
25. What does clinical waste mean?
Any item contaminated with human tissue. Bodily fluids. Dressings. Gloves. Drugs and other pharmaceutical products.
26. Where should clinical waste be stored?
Away from patients whilst awaiting collection
27. What should be placed in a yellow sharps box?
Used and unsheathed needles