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1

Benzodiazepines

Psychoactive drugs
• Used for anxiety, insomnia, panic attacks
• Enhance the effect of neurotransmitter GABA
thus promoting calm

2

medicinal plants

Valeriana officinalis
Piper methysticum
Cannabis sativa

3

Valeriana officinalis

Roots are usually mainly used
• valerenic acid, sesquiterpenes and valepotriates
• Use for insomnia, nervous tension due to anxiety
• counter indications such as headache, dizziness,
mechanism of action similar to benzodiazepines;
however, instead of binding to the gamma subunit
like a benzodiazepine, it appears to bind to the beta subunit on the GABA-A receptor instead.

4

Piper methysticum

• Kava kava
• natives prepared a mixture of the
plant's extract with water or coconut
milk (PIPER, 1998)
• lactones, kavalactones or
kavapirones
• enhanced ligand binding to gammaaminobutyric acid A (GABAA)
receptors

5

Cannabis sativa

• Easily recognisable plant
• Was used initially as antimalarial and
anti rheumatic drug, aphrodisiac,
narcotic, treatment of both nausea
and headaches
• Cannabinoids
• The most psychoactive cannabinoid
in cannabis is Δ9-
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

6

The world of Synthetic Cannabinoids
and Designer Drugs
• Designer Drugs
(analogs)
• Circumvent the
legislation by

twisting the tail on
the molecule

7

Three legislations

Medicines Act
• Medicines Regulations
• Misuse of Drugs Act And Regulations

8

The Medicines
Act 1981...

regulates medicines,
related products and
medical devices in New
Zealand. The Act ensures
that the medicines and products used
in New Zealand are safe and effective.

9

Medicines Act sets out:

requirements for the approval, classification, manufacture, sale,
distribution, advertising, prescribing and dispensing of medicines
• licensing requirements for the medicines distribution chain, including
wholesalers and pharmacies
• requirements for the approval of related products
• post-market controls on medicines and medical devices

10

What is a Medicine ?

• Any substance that is manufactured,
imported, sold or supplied wholly or principally
for administering to human beings for a
therapeutic purpose

11

Therapeutic Purpose means

• treating or preventing disease
• A named substance may or may not be a
medicine

12

"Herbal remedy" means

a medicine (not being or
containing a prescription medicine, or a restricted
medicine, or a pharmacy-only medicine) consisting of –
(a) Any substance produced by subjecting a plant to
drying, crushing or any other similar process; or
(b) A mixture comprising two or more such substances
only; or
(c) A mixture comprising one or more such substances
with water or ethyl alcohol or any inert substance

13

What is a Controlled Drug ?

• A controlled drug means any substance
specified or described in the schedules of the
Misuse of Drugs Act
• A named substance is a controlled drug
whatever its purpose

14

Schedules in the Medicines Legislation

• General Sales
• Pharmacy Only Pharmacist Only
• Prescription

15

Medicines Act
and Medicines Regulations
Ensuring the......??
of medicines

• Safety
• Quality
• Efficacy

16

Misuse of Drugs Act And Regulations
Ensuring there is:

• Penalty
• Control
• Security
• Recording
• Storage
• Gatekeeping

17

MEDSAFE
Mission

• Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Authority

To enhance the Health of New Zealanders by
regulating Medicines and Medical Devices to maximise
safety and benefit

18

MEDSAFE
Before Distribution:?
Acceptable Standards of:

• Evaluation

Safety
• Quality
• Efficacy
• Approval of Products

19

After Distribution

• Compliance
• Surveillance
• Personnel
• Premises
• Practices
• Monitoring of the chain of distribution

20

Opioids

• Substances that act on opioid receptors
• are primarily used for pain relief, including anesthesia

21

Opioids 2TEMGESIC examples

Morphine -class B
Heroin- class A

22

Morphine

cause sleep
• The primary source of morphine is
isolation from poppy straw of the opium
poppy.
It acts on the Central Nervous System
(CNS) to decrease the feeling of pain

23

Heroin

Opioid firstly synthesized mainly to
substitute morphine
acts on Brain and Nervous System

24

CLASS A

Heroin
Cocaine
Mescaline

25

Class B (3 parts)

Morphine
Opium
Amphetamines

26

Class C (3 parts)

Benzodiazepines
Codeine
Buprenorphne