Overweight and Obesity Flashcards Preview

PH2110 > Overweight and Obesity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Overweight and Obesity Deck (23):

What are overweight and obesity?

Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health


How is overweight and obesity measured?

BMI is a simple index of weight for height that is commonly used to classify weight in adults.
<18.5 underweight
18.5-<25 healthy weight
>25 but <30 overweight
>30 obese


How accurate is BMI?

BMI measures body weight not body aft
Measures may be skewed by high muscle mass
Different cut offs in different ethnic groups
Measures not appropriate for women who are breast feeding/ pregnant, or people who are very frail/ elderly
Need to take account of age, height and gender when using BMI in children and adolescents


Why body shape matters

Indicates where fat is stored
Apple shape body known as abdominal or central obesity, may be more at risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes


Overweight and obesity among adults

More than 6 out of 10 men are overweight or obese (63%)
More than 5 out of 10 women are overweight or obese (56%)


Overweight and obesity in the UK

Prevalence of obesity in adults has more than doubled in the last 25 years
Being overweight has become the norm and Britain is becoming an obese society
Over half of the UK adult population could be obese by 2050
Children are increasingly affected


Energy imbalance

The fundamental cause of obesity and overweight is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended over a prolonged period of time


What drives obesity?

Obesity is driven by changes in the physical, social and economic environment that make it easy to take in more calories than needed while making it harder to get enough physical activity to consume those extra calories


Physical inactivity

Globally there has been an increase in physical inactivity due to increasingly sedentary nature of many forms of work, changing modes of transportation and increasing urbanisation



Majority polygenic trait plus environment
Very rarely single gene defects e.g. Prader-Willi syndrome, leptin deficiency


Medical conditions

Medical conditions that can cause weight gain include: Cushings syndrome, hypothyroidism, polycystic ovary syndrome, age


Social and economic influences

Generally rate of obesity are higher among those from poorer backgrounds and those experiencing greater levels of social deprivation
Pattern is clearer for women than men


Premature death

Obesity is associated with premature death
It is estimated that on average obesity reduces life expectancy by between 3 and 13 years
In general the more severe the obesity and the earlier it develops, the greater the risk of premature death


Obesity related disease

Cardiovascular disease
Type 2 diabetes
Musculoskeletal disorders
Some cancers
Anxiety, depression and psychological damage
Adverse outcomes in pregnancy


Economic costs of obesity

The cost to the NHS of treating obesity related conditions already exceeds £5 billion in England
Costs to wider society are approximately £20 billion


Benefits of modest weight loss

Evidence shows 5-10% weight loss has benefits including: decrease in total mortality, decrease risk of developing type 2 diabetes, decrease in obesity related cancers, decrease in blood pressure, blood lipid profile improves
Evidence shows 5-10kg weight loss can improve: back and joint pain, symptoms of breathlessness, sleep apnoea


Role of the pharmacist

Need the skills to sensitively raise the issue of weight management
Explain risks
Encourage healthy lifestyles
Signposting to local services


Eight tips for healthy eating

Base your meals on starchy foods
Eat lots of fruit and vegetables
Eat more fish including a portion of oily fish
Cut down on saturated fat and sugar
Eat less salt
Get active and be a healthy weight
Don't get thirsty
Don't skip breakfast


OTC slimming products

Little robust evidence to support efficacy
Potential support to behavioral weight loss programmes
Not subject to same degree of safety and efficacy testing as licensed medicines
Potential risks e.g. adverse effects


Orlistat 60mg (OTC)

Indicated for weight loss in adults over 18 years old who are overweight BMI > 28
Should be taken in conjunction with a mildly reduced calorie lower fat diet


Enhanced community pharmacy services

Opportunities for weight management advice and information through many of the enhanced community pharmacy services e.g.
Diabetes and cardiovascular services
Health screening and monitoring services
Smoking cessation services
Medication review services


Community pharmacy weight management services

Initial assessment
Height and weight measurements
Information and goal setting
Follow-up, monitoring and support
May also include PGD for supply of orlistat, referral/ signposting


If all else fails

Specialist obesity/bariatric clinic for multiple disciplinary care of severe and complex obesity
Expertise in multiple obesity-related disorders
Access to bariatric surgery