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Flashcards in Professional Decision Making Deck (8):

Four principles of healthcare ethics

Respect for autonomy- respecting he individual and their ability to make informed decisions
Beneficence- doing good
Non-maleficence- avoiding harm
Justice- fairness, treating those who are equal the same


Stages of professional decision making

Gather the facts
Consider values
Generate options
Choose an option and be prepared to justify your choice


Gathering the facts

What laws apply?- criminal law, civil law, administrative law
Ethics- standards of conduct, ethics and performance (GPhC), ethical principles
Others- medicines knowledge, patient details, reference sources, guidelines etc.


Administrative Law

Pharmacy contract (England and Wales)- essential, advanced, enhanced
Drug Tariff- blacklist, dental formulary, appliances etc.


Consider values and interests

Whose interests are you considering?
Individual patient/ member of public, you, the profession, relatives, your colleagues, other health professionals, other members of the public, employer, societal e.g. NHS resources


Generate options

What could you do? Generate a range of options
Consider the possible consequences of each option, how likely are these consequences?
Think about four principles


Choose an option and be prepared to justify your choice

Choose your preferred option
Can you justify your preferred option to self/others as the best option?
Who do you inform? When? How?


Document/ reflect

Document/inform others, if appropriate (copy in pharmacy and if locum take a copy with you)
Afterwards reflect, what would you do the same/differently in same circumstances if this happened again?