P3: Forensic Psychology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in P3: Forensic Psychology Deck (151)
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1

What is offender profiling/criminal profiling

Behavioural and analytical tool aimed to predict and profile characteristics of criminals

2

What is the Top-down approach/topology approach

(American) Working down to matching evidence to a pre-existing template. Classifies murderers or rapists into 2 categories (Organised or disorganised)

3

What idea is organised and disorganised distinction is based on

Having a signature 'way of working'(Modus operandi) that correlates to a particular set of psychological and social characteristics

4

What are characteristics of an organised offender

Evidence of planning, High levels of control, Above-average IQ, usually married(sexually competent), have a 'type' they target

5

What are characteristics of a disorganised offender

Little evidence of planning, little control, below-average IQ unemployed,history of failed relationships, Shows signs of a spontaneous act

6

What are the four main stages in constructing an FBI profile

-Data assimilation(profilers reviews the evidence)
-Crime scene classification(organised or disorganised)
-Crime reconstruction(hypothesis of sequence of events...)
-Profile generation(hypothesis related to the likely offender)

7

A03: Top-down application

Limitation: common offences do not lend themselves well, best suited for big crimes scenes that reveal important details about the suspect.

8

A03: Top-down modelling based on

Limitation: based on outdated models of personality, assumes offenders have a consistent motivation and behaviour. No external factors considered(e.g.situation) ∴ poor validity when trying to predict offenders next move

9

A03: Top-down evidence of categories

Limitation: Little support for 'disorganised offender' from data analysed using 'small space technique'.Findings found evidence of organised but not disorganised offenders ∴ undermines the whole system.

10

A03: Top-down complexity/simplicity

Limitation: Too simplistic, suggested we focus on motivation of killers not type because behaviours of organised and disorganised are not mutually exclusive therefore has prompted researchers to propose more detailed topological models

11

A03: Top-down original sample

Limitation: original sample only interviewed 36 killers, therefore is unrepresentative. Also it is not appropriate to rely on self-report data with convicted killers when constructing a classification system

12

What is the bottom-up approach

(British)Working up from evidence collected at the crime scene and then developing a hypothesis about their motivations, characteristics(Data driven)

13

What is investigative psychology

A type of bottom-up profiling that matches details of crime scenes to a statistical database in order to apply psychological theories, which allow you to predict the next offence

14

State and explain the central concept of investigative psychology

Interpersonal coherence- The idea that the way an offender behaves at the crime scene may reflect behaviour in everyday situations

15

What is forensic awareness

Individuals who have been subjected to police interrogation in the past which makes them mindful about 'covering their tracks'

16

What is geological profiling

A type of bottom-up profiling based on the principle of spatial consistency, that an offenders base of operations can be revealed by the location of their previous crimes

17

What is crime mapping

Information from the location of linked crime scenes which allows informed decisions about their base of operation and modus operandi

18

Define jeopardy surface

An educated guess on where the offender will strike next

19

What is the difference between a Marauder and commuter

Marauder- Operates in close proximity to their home base
commuter- Travelled a distance away from their usual residence

20

What is circle theory and how does it help

A circle created around their usual residence from a series of offending.Their 'spatial decision making' can provide insight into the nature of the offence

21

A03: bottom-up evidence

Strength: Using small space analysis on 66 sexual assault cases, a correlation was found across patterns of behaviour which were deemed common. Can lead to an understanding of how behaviour may changes with offences, showing how statistical techniques can be applied

22

A03: bottom-up geographical profiling

Strength: Information collected from 120 (serial)murder cases showed the location of body disposal were in difference sites, but created a centre of gravity around their base.(Done using small space analysis), therefore spatial info can be a key factor in locating the base of an offender

23

A03: bottom-up The basis(foundation)

Strength: Has a scientific basis, is more objective n scientific than the top down(e.g.less speculation), Geographical,biographical and psychological data can assist. Therefore approach has many utilities which can aid with all aspects of the judicial process

24

A03: bottom-up application

Strength: (application)Can be applied to a wide range of offences e.g. small space analysis can be used for theft ...to rape and murder

25

A03: bottom-up profiling results

Limitation: mixed results for profiling as there has been a significant of failures in the past.A study surveyed 48 police forces and found roughly 83% of info provided by profiler is considered 'useful', but only 3% leads to accurate identification of offender

26

What did the atavistic form propose

Lombroso’s historical approach laid foundation of profiling. As he suggested that criminals were ‘genetic throwbacks’(primitive sub-species) biologically different from non criminals

27

How did Lombroso view criminals

Lacking evolutionary development , savage and untamed nature = impossible to adapt to a civilised society there would turn to crime.
(Innate tendency and suggested it’s not the criminals fault)

28

What are some Atavistic characteristic both physical and emotions

Physical - narrow, slipping brow
- strong prominent jaw
- high cheekbones
- facial asymmetry
- extra toe, nipples, fingers
- dark skin

Emotional - insensitivity to pain
-criminal slang
-tattoos
-unemployment

29

What are some 'markers'/traits of a murder according to the atavistic form

bloodshot eyes,curly hair, long ears

30

Detail Lombroso's research he did for the atavistic form

Examined facial and cranial features from Italian convicts, 383 dead,3839 alive(over 4000) = conclusion 40% of criminal acts can be accounted for by people with atavistic characteristics