P2: Research Methods Flashcards Preview

AQA A level Psychology > P2: Research Methods > Flashcards

Flashcards in P2: Research Methods Deck (39)
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1

Define: Aim

General expression of what the researcher wants to investigate

2

Define: Hypothesis

Statement of what the researchers believes to be true

3

Define: Experimental method

Researcher causes the IV to vary and records the effects on the DV

4

Define: Extraneous variable

‘Nuisance’ variables that do not vary systematically with the IV

5

Define: Confounding Variable

variables changes systematically with the IV

6

Define: Demand Characteristics

Cues from the researcher/ research situation that may reveal the aim of the study

7

Define: Investigator effects

Any effect of the investigators behaviour on the outcome of the research(the DV)

8

Define: Randomisation

Use of chance when designing investigations to control the effects of bias

9

Define: Standardisation

Using the exact same formalised procedure for all participants in a research study

10

Define: Control groups

Act as a baseline and used for the purpose of setting a comparison

11

Define: Single blind

A participant doesn’t know the aims of the study so that demand characteristics are reduced

12

Define: Double blind

Both participant and researcher don’t know the aim of the study to reduce demand characteristics and investigator effects

13

Define: Independent groups

One group does condition A, second group does condition B
- Randomly allocated to experimental groups

14

State the benefits of using Independent groups

-No order effects, only tested once , can’t become bored
- Reduces demand characteristics, only tested once

15

State the limitations of using independent groups

-Participant variables, EV/CV different people different effects/reactions
-More participants , mean more time and expensive

16

Define: Repeated measures

Same participants take part in all conditions of an experiment

17

State the benefits of using repeated measures

-participant variables, controls an important CV
- fewer participants , save money

18

State the limitations of using repeated measures

-Order effects, doing a task twice has familiarity bias
-participants may guess aims , demand characteristics

19

Define: Matched pairs

Two groups of participants are used but they are also related to each other by being paired on participants variables

20

State the benefits of using matched pairs

-Participant variables, matched , better validity
-No order effect , only tested once

21

State the limitations of using matched pairs

-imperfect matching, time-consuming , can’t control all variables
-More participants , more money

22

Define: Population

Large group of people that the researcher is interested in studying

23

Define: Sample

A smaller group chosen to represent a larger population

24

Define: Generalisation

Sample drawn should be representation of population so generalisations can be made

25

Define: Bias

Majority of samples are biased in that certain groups may be over-or-under-represented

26

Define: Opportunity sample

-People who are simply most available
- how? Ask people nearby

27

State 1 benefit and limitation of using opportunity sample

- quick method
- Inevitably biased , as it is unrepresentative of the target population

28

Define: Volunteer sample

-Participants select themselves
Via advertising

29

State 1 benefit and limitation of using volunteer sample

- participant are willing , more engaged
- biased, may share certain traits .e.g. curiosity

30

Define: Random sample

Every person in target population has an equal chance of being selected
Can be achieved via lottery method