Flashcards in P1: Memory Deck (99)
Describe the research method conducted on coding
Participants were required to recall words in the correct order.
4 lists: acoustically similar, acoustically dissimilar, semantically similar, semantically dissimilar
Describe the conclusion found from research on coding
Immediate recall was worse with acoustic similar.
Recall after 20 mins was worse with semantic similar
STM is acoustic, LTM is semantic
Describe the research method conducted on capacity
A researcher reads 4 digits increasing each time, while a participant repeats back
Describe the conclusion found from research on capcity
On average participants could repeat 9.3 numbers and 7.3 letters immediately in the correct order
Describe the research method conducted on memory span and chunking
Observations were made of everyday practices, and noticed things come in sevens,e.g. 7 days of the week
Describe the conclusion found from research conducted on memory span and chunking
The memory span of the STM is about 7 items(plus or minus 2), however this can be improved by chunking
Describe the research method conducted on the duration of the STM
24 students were given a constant syllable to remember and a 3 digit number to count backwards from for a given time.
Describe the conclusion found from research conducted on the duration of the STM
An average of 80% of syllables were correct with a 3s interval. Avg recall after 18s was 3%.
Was suggested that the duration of the STM without rehearsal is 18-30s
Describe the research method conducted on the duration of the LTM
392 americans aged 17-24 did two tests
1)Recognition test:50 photos from participants yearbook
2)Free recall test: Participants listed names of their graduating class
Describe the conclusion found from research conducted on the LTM
Participants tested after 15 years of graduation were 90% ,48y were 70% accurate in photo recognition,
Free recall was less accurate being 15y was 60% and 48y was 30%
A03:Research on coding Material used
Limitation: No meaningful material used, words had no personal meaning. When processing more meaningful info people may use semantic coding even for STM tasks, therefore must be careful in generalising different kinds of memory tasks
A03: Research on capacity (digit span) Temporal validity
Limitation: Early research lacked control of extraneous variables therefore the research may not be valid due to confounding variables. However results have been confirmed in other research supporting its validity.
A03: Research on memory span and chunking Overestimated?
Limitation: Research was reviewed and suggested that the capacity of the STM is only about 4 chunks, suggests that 5 items is more appropriate than 7
A03: Research on the duration of the STM Artificial stimulus
Limitation: lack of external validity, as it doesn't reflect most real-life memory activities, however there are times when we remember meaningless memories e.g. phone number
A03: Research on the duration of the LTM Ecological validity
Strength: It used real-life meaningful memories, found that using meaningless pictures recall rates were lower. However confounding variables were not controlled e.g.may have looked at the yearbook before the test
How many stores is the multi-memory model made up of, and what are their names
-Sensory register (Iconic and Echoic)
What is the MSM(multi-store memory)
It describes how information is flows through the memory system.
What is the Sensory regisor
A stimulus from the environment. It is made up of five stores, one for each sense.
What are the two main stores in the sensory registor
-Iconic memory(Visual info coded visually)
-Echoic memory(Auditory info is coded acoustically)
What is the Duration, Capacity and Coding of the Sensory register(SR)
-Duration: Very brief, less than half a sec
-Capacity: High, e.g. 1 eye storing millions of info
-Coding: Depends on sense, visual,auditory
Describe the transfer of info from SR to STM
Very little goes of what goes into the SR is passed into the memory system, however if you pay attention it will.
What is the STM
Known as limited capacity store as it can only contain a limited number of items/things before forgetting occurs
What is the Duration, Capacity and Coding of the STM
-Duration: 18-30s unless rehearsed
-Capacity: 5-9 items before forgetting occurs
Describe the transfer of info from STM to LTM
If rehearsed it can be kept in the STM. If rehearsed long enough it passes into the LTM. This is also known as 'maintenance rehearsal'
What is the LTM
A permanent memory store for info that has been rehearsed for a prolonged time. In order to recall info from the LTM it must be transferred back to the STM via retrieval
What is the Duration, Capacity and Coding of the LTM
-Duration: potential a lifetime
-Capacity: potential unlimited
-Coding: Semantic i.e.in terms of meaning
A03: The multi-memory model Research evidence
Strength: Research support found that we tend to mix up similar sounding words in the STM, but similar meaning words in the LTM. STM is acoustic and LTM is semantic. Therefore, supports the view that they are separate and independent stores
A03: The multi-memory model Type of STM
Limitation: Case study on KF displays there are multiple types STM however, the MSM displays only 1 unitary store. Found that when digits were read to KF(amnesia patient) recall was poor compared to when he read them himself. Suggested that there must be a ST store to process visual info and anther to process auditory info.
A03: The multi-memory model Type of rehearsal
Limitation: Suggested that there are 2 types of rehearsal, maintenance and elaborative. Elaborative rehearsal(not in MSM)occurs when you link info to existing knowledge which is needed for long-term storage.Therefore a serious limitation as the model cannot explain this research finding