P1: Memory Flashcards Preview

AQA A level Psychology > P1: Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in P1: Memory Deck (99)
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1

Describe the research method conducted on coding

Participants were required to recall words in the correct order.
4 lists: acoustically similar, acoustically dissimilar, semantically similar, semantically dissimilar

2

Describe the conclusion found from research on coding

Immediate recall was worse with acoustic similar.
Recall after 20 mins was worse with semantic similar
STM is acoustic, LTM is semantic

3

Describe the research method conducted on capacity

A researcher reads 4 digits increasing each time, while a participant repeats back

4

Describe the conclusion found from research on capcity

On average participants could repeat 9.3 numbers and 7.3 letters immediately in the correct order

5

Describe the research method conducted on memory span and chunking

Observations were made of everyday practices, and noticed things come in sevens,e.g. 7 days of the week

6

Describe the conclusion found from research conducted on memory span and chunking

The memory span of the STM is about 7 items(plus or minus 2), however this can be improved by chunking

7

Describe the research method conducted on the duration of the STM

24 students were given a constant syllable to remember and a 3 digit number to count backwards from for a given time.

8

Describe the conclusion found from research conducted on the duration of the STM

An average of 80% of syllables were correct with a 3s interval. Avg recall after 18s was 3%.
Was suggested that the duration of the STM without rehearsal is 18-30s

9

Describe the research method conducted on the duration of the LTM

392 americans aged 17-24 did two tests
1)Recognition test:50 photos from participants yearbook
2)Free recall test: Participants listed names of their graduating class

10

Describe the conclusion found from research conducted on the LTM

Participants tested after 15 years of graduation were 90% ,48y were 70% accurate in photo recognition,
Free recall was less accurate being 15y was 60% and 48y was 30%

11

A03:Research on coding Material used

Limitation: No meaningful material used, words had no personal meaning. When processing more meaningful info people may use semantic coding even for STM tasks, therefore must be careful in generalising different kinds of memory tasks

12

A03: Research on capacity (digit span) Temporal validity

Limitation: Early research lacked control of extraneous variables therefore the research may not be valid due to confounding variables. However results have been confirmed in other research supporting its validity.

13

A03: Research on memory span and chunking Overestimated?

Limitation: Research was reviewed and suggested that the capacity of the STM is only about 4 chunks, suggests that 5 items is more appropriate than 7

14

A03: Research on the duration of the STM Artificial stimulus

Limitation: lack of external validity, as it doesn't reflect most real-life memory activities, however there are times when we remember meaningless memories e.g. phone number

15

A03: Research on the duration of the LTM Ecological validity

Strength: It used real-life meaningful memories, found that using meaningless pictures recall rates were lower. However confounding variables were not controlled e.g.may have looked at the yearbook before the test

16

How many stores is the multi-memory model made up of, and what are their names

3 stores
-Sensory register (Iconic and Echoic)
-STM store
-LTM store

17

What is the MSM(multi-store memory)

It describes how information is flows through the memory system.

18

What is the Sensory regisor

A stimulus from the environment. It is made up of five stores, one for each sense.

19

What are the two main stores in the sensory registor

-Iconic memory(Visual info coded visually)
-Echoic memory(Auditory info is coded acoustically)

20

What is the Duration, Capacity and Coding of the Sensory register(SR)

-Duration: Very brief, less than half a sec
-Capacity: High, e.g. 1 eye storing millions of info
-Coding: Depends on sense, visual,auditory

21

Describe the transfer of info from SR to STM

Very little goes of what goes into the SR is passed into the memory system, however if you pay attention it will.

22

What is the STM

Known as limited capacity store as it can only contain a limited number of items/things before forgetting occurs

23

What is the Duration, Capacity and Coding of the STM

-Duration: 18-30s unless rehearsed
-Capacity: 5-9 items before forgetting occurs
-Coding: Acoustic

24

Describe the transfer of info from STM to LTM

If rehearsed it can be kept in the STM. If rehearsed long enough it passes into the LTM. This is also known as 'maintenance rehearsal'

25

What is the LTM

A permanent memory store for info that has been rehearsed for a prolonged time. In order to recall info from the LTM it must be transferred back to the STM via retrieval

26

What is the Duration, Capacity and Coding of the LTM

-Duration: potential a lifetime
-Capacity: potential unlimited
-Coding: Semantic i.e.in terms of meaning

27

A03: The multi-memory model Research evidence

Strength: Research support found that we tend to mix up similar sounding words in the STM, but similar meaning words in the LTM. STM is acoustic and LTM is semantic. Therefore, supports the view that they are separate and independent stores

28

A03: The multi-memory model Type of STM

Limitation: Case study on KF displays there are multiple types STM however, the MSM displays only 1 unitary store. Found that when digits were read to KF(amnesia patient) recall was poor compared to when he read them himself. Suggested that there must be a ST store to process visual info and anther to process auditory info.

29

A03: The multi-memory model Type of rehearsal

Limitation: Suggested that there are 2 types of rehearsal, maintenance and elaborative. Elaborative rehearsal(not in MSM)occurs when you link info to existing knowledge which is needed for long-term storage.Therefore a serious limitation as the model cannot explain this research finding

30

A03: The multi-memory model Artificial material

Limitation: Research evidence required people to recall digits,letters,words and sometimes consonant syllables(random syllables.e.g.ZLN) In real life we form memories related to useful things.e.g.names,facts,places. Therefore suggests a lack of ecological validity as research shows how memory works with meaningless material.