Flashcards in P3: Relationships Deck (81)
What is sexual selection
Attributes/behaviours that increase reproductive success are passed on and may become exaggerated over time
What is human reproductive behaviour
Behaviours which relate to opportunities to reproduce and thereby increase the survival chance of our genes
What is anisogamy
differences between male and female sex cells
Name some key differences between the Male and female anisogamy(sex cells)
Male: small,mobile,continuously produced
Female: large,static,limited production
What is inter-sexual selection and which sex prefers this mating strategy
Selection of mates ‘between’ sexes (Females selecting males)
Preferred female strategy
Explain why inter-sexual selection is the preferred female strategy
‘Quality over quantity’
Females make a greater investment of time before and after birth, therefore are choosier and seek a Male who will provide a healthy offspring and supporting resources
What impact does the ‘runaway process’/inter-sexual selection have on mating behaviour
Preference of both sexes will determine the attributes that are passed on. E.g. Height which means taller males in the future
What is intra-sexual selection and which sex prefers this mating strat?
Selection of mates 'within' sexes (Males selecting females)
Prefered male strat
Why is intra-sexual selection the prefered male stratergy
Females are limited and choosey ∴ males must compete. Winner gets their traits passed on
Out of Intra-sexual and Inter-sexual mating which is the prefered male strategy
Think 'a' for m'a'le
and 'e' for f'e'male (2nd letter)
What is the impact on mating behaviour due to Intra-sexual mating?
Production of aggressive males as they are more likely to reproduce and preference for youthful and fertile women
A03: Sexual selection Research for anisogamy
Strength: Survey asking 10,000+ adults about partner preference found females prefer resource-related characteristics and men = reproductive capacity ∴ supports differences due to anisogamy and partner preference from social selection theory
A03: Sexual selection Research for interpersonal selection
Strength: Uni students asked to have sex with stranger. Found, no females agreed but 75% of men agreed ∴ supports idea that females are choosier and male strategy is 'quantity over quality'
A03: Sexual selection Cultural influence
Strength: Preference changes over time due to social norms.e.g.China some preferences changed and some remained the same over 25yrs ∴ suggests evolutionary and cultural influences must be taken into account when explaining
A03: Sexual selection Waist-hip ratio
Strength: 0.7 ratio of waist-hip ratio is attractive bc signifies women is fertile and not preggo ∴ reflects evolutionary factors in reproductive behaviours via partner preference
A03: Sexual selection Lonely hearts research
Strength: US newspaper ads showed desired traits. Women offered physical beauty and youth. Men offered resources and sought youth ∴ support evolutionary suggestions that women seek resources and men seek reproductive fitness
What is self-disclosure?
The act of revealing intimate information to another person
What is Social Penetration theory(SPT)?
The gradual process of revealing your inner self to another person. In a romantic relationship it involves reciprocal exchange
Fill in the blank:
Penetration leads to ___________ , giving them a ______ understanding of each other
Penetration leads to development, giving them a deeper understanding of each other
According to the SPT, describe and explain the start of a relationship?
Breath is narrow bc too much information may be off-putting and ∴ may cause one person to end the relationship
According to the SPT, describe and explain the development of a relationship?
Level of depth increases, meaning more layers are gradually revealed ∴ likelihood of intimate info being revealed is increased
Asides from breath and depth, what other factor must there be in order for a relationship to develop
Linking to self-disclosure, describe how reciprocity should be interpreted in a relationship,
Self-disclosure to be received hopefully sensitively and rewarding ∴ leading to further self-disclosure from other. (Balance)
A03: Factors affecting Self disclosure Research evidence
Strength: strong correlations between several measures of satisfaction in hetro couples. use of self-disclosure = believed more to be satisfied ∴ supports idea that it's a key concept.
A03: Factors affecting Self disclosure Real-life application
Strength: 57%, Gay men and women reported self-disclosure as maintenance mechanism. If less skilled partners use this instead of small talk = deeper relation ∴ highlights importance of self-disclosure and how it can support problems in a relation
A03: Factors affecting Self disclosure Cultural differences
Limitation: Individualistic culture = disclose more sexual thoughts, collectivist disclose less sexual.Both linked to disclosure but pattern is different ∴ SPT is limited to western cultures and cannot be generalised to other countries.
A03: Factors affecting Self disclosure Link to breakdown
Limitation: Sometimes Breakdown categories as reduction of self-disclosure. Counter: Duck's model suggests increase in order to save failing relation ∴ increase in disclosure doesn't always lead to positive developments.
A03: Factors affecting Self disclosure Correlation vs Causation
Limitation: Positive correlation between self-disclosure and satisfaction cannot be assumed to be causal ∴ research evidence provides limited support.
Define: Physical attractiveness
How appealing we find a person's face.
An important factor in the formation of relationships. Usually a general agreement on what is considered physically attractive in a culture