P3: Relationships Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in P3: Relationships Deck (81)
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1

What is sexual selection

Attributes/behaviours that increase reproductive success are passed on and may become exaggerated over time

2

What is human reproductive behaviour

Behaviours which relate to opportunities to reproduce and thereby increase the survival chance of our genes

3

What is anisogamy

differences between male and female sex cells

4

Name some key differences between the Male and female anisogamy(sex cells)

Male: small,mobile,continuously produced
Female: large,static,limited production

5

What is inter-sexual selection and which sex prefers this mating strategy

Selection of mates ‘between’ sexes (Females selecting males)
Preferred female strategy

6

Explain why inter-sexual selection is the preferred female strategy

‘Quality over quantity’
Females make a greater investment of time before and after birth, therefore are choosier and seek a Male who will provide a healthy offspring and supporting resources

7

What impact does the ‘runaway process’/inter-sexual selection have on mating behaviour

Preference of both sexes will determine the attributes that are passed on. E.g. Height which means taller males in the future

8

What is intra-sexual selection and which sex prefers this mating strat?

Selection of mates 'within' sexes (Males selecting females)
Prefered male strat

9

Why is intra-sexual selection the prefered male stratergy

Females are limited and choosey ∴ males must compete. Winner gets their traits passed on

10

Out of Intra-sexual and Inter-sexual mating which is the prefered male strategy

Intra-sexual
Think 'a' for m'a'le
and 'e' for f'e'male (2nd letter)

11

What is the impact on mating behaviour due to Intra-sexual mating?

Production of aggressive males as they are more likely to reproduce and preference for youthful and fertile women

12

A03: Sexual selection Research for anisogamy

Strength: Survey asking 10,000+ adults about partner preference found females prefer resource-related characteristics and men = reproductive capacity ∴ supports differences due to anisogamy and partner preference from social selection theory

13

A03: Sexual selection Research for interpersonal selection

Strength: Uni students asked to have sex with stranger. Found, no females agreed but 75% of men agreed ∴ supports idea that females are choosier and male strategy is 'quantity over quality'

14

A03: Sexual selection Cultural influence

Strength: Preference changes over time due to social norms.e.g.China some preferences changed and some remained the same over 25yrs ∴ suggests evolutionary and cultural influences must be taken into account when explaining

15

A03: Sexual selection Waist-hip ratio

Strength: 0.7 ratio of waist-hip ratio is attractive bc signifies women is fertile and not preggo ∴ reflects evolutionary factors in reproductive behaviours via partner preference

16

A03: Sexual selection Lonely hearts research

Strength: US newspaper ads showed desired traits. Women offered physical beauty and youth. Men offered resources and sought youth ∴ support evolutionary suggestions that women seek resources and men seek reproductive fitness

17

What is self-disclosure?

The act of revealing intimate information to another person

18

What is Social Penetration theory(SPT)?

The gradual process of revealing your inner self to another person. In a romantic relationship it involves reciprocal exchange

19

Fill in the blank:
Penetration leads to ___________ , giving them a ______ understanding of each other

Penetration leads to development, giving them a deeper understanding of each other

20

According to the SPT, describe and explain the start of a relationship?

Breath is narrow bc too much information may be off-putting and ∴ may cause one person to end the relationship

21

According to the SPT, describe and explain the development of a relationship?

Level of depth increases, meaning more layers are gradually revealed ∴ likelihood of intimate info being revealed is increased

22

Asides from breath and depth, what other factor must there be in order for a relationship to develop

Reciprocity

23

Linking to self-disclosure, describe how reciprocity should be interpreted in a relationship,

Self-disclosure to be received hopefully sensitively and rewarding ∴ leading to further self-disclosure from other. (Balance)

24

A03: Factors affecting Self disclosure Research evidence

Strength: strong correlations between several measures of satisfaction in hetro couples. use of self-disclosure = believed more to be satisfied ∴ supports idea that it's a key concept.

25

A03: Factors affecting Self disclosure Real-life application

Strength: 57%, Gay men and women reported self-disclosure as maintenance mechanism. If less skilled partners use this instead of small talk = deeper relation ∴ highlights importance of self-disclosure and how it can support problems in a relation

26

A03: Factors affecting Self disclosure Cultural differences

Limitation: Individualistic culture = disclose more sexual thoughts, collectivist disclose less sexual.Both linked to disclosure but pattern is different ∴ SPT is limited to western cultures and cannot be generalised to other countries.

27

A03: Factors affecting Self disclosure Link to breakdown

Limitation: Sometimes Breakdown categories as reduction of self-disclosure. Counter: Duck's model suggests increase in order to save failing relation ∴ increase in disclosure doesn't always lead to positive developments.

28

A03: Factors affecting Self disclosure Correlation vs Causation

Limitation: Positive correlation between self-disclosure and satisfaction cannot be assumed to be causal ∴ research evidence provides limited support.

29

Define: Physical attractiveness

How appealing we find a person's face.

An important factor in the formation of relationships. Usually a general agreement on what is considered physically attractive in a culture

30

Give 2 traits that would classify a person as more attractive

-Symmetrical face
-Neotenous features