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Flashcards in Pain Deck (41):
1

the definition of PAIN is

Unpleasant sensory & emotional experience associated w actual or potential tissue damage

2

Nociception = Pain T/F

F --> Only if higher centres decode the information as such

3

Process of Pain Perception

Transduction
Transmission
Perception
Modulation

4

what are the main types of fibres for pain perception?

Adelta and C-fibres

5

What fibres are faster in pain perception?

Adelta (very fast and myelinated)

6

C-fibres are myelinated T/F

F --> Very fine, unmyelinated and not very fast

7

The cells bodies of pain nerve fibres are located in

Dorsal Root Ganglia and Trigeminal

8

How many layers does the dorsal horn has?

6

9

which type of fibre only synapses with the most superficial layers?

C-fibres

10

Adelta fibres are not found in the palm of the hand T/F

F --> only C-Fibres are found in the palm of the hands

11

which type of fibre is responsible for sharp intense pain?

Adelta

12

Which type of brain pathway can increase/decrease pain sensation?

Descending pathways

13

Which areas of the brain are important in pain modulation?

Periaqueductal Grey (PAG)
Rostroventral Medulla (RVM)

14

What is inflammatory pain?

Pain caused by inflammatory soup

15

what are some of the mediators found in the inflammatory soup?

Cytokine, Bradykinin, PGE2, ATP & Adenosin

16

Define Allodynia

Pain perception on normal stimuli

17

How is define the increased pain perception and response to normally painful stimulus?

Hyperalgesia

18

What are TRP channels and what do they mediate?

Transient Receptor Potential and mediate increased pain sensation by increasing membrane potential (allowing for activation at physiological temperature)

19

TRP1 agonist

Capsaicin

20

Areas in charge of perception of emotional pain?

Cingulate and pre-frontal cortex

21

what types of sensitisation can be found and how do they operate?

Central --> Makes CNS more sensitive
Peripheral --> Makes nerve more sensitive

22

2nd order neuron in the pain pathway goes to

Anterolateral System

23

how many pain fibres have higher cortex connections at each site?

5/10

24

What is maladaptive Pain?

pain produced without an underlying pathology or stimuli either due to poor regeneration of the fibre or due to unknown reasons

25

what are the 3 main types of pain?

Nociceptive
Inflammatory
Maladaptive

26

Neuropathic Pain is?

pain caused due to damage to the sensory pathway or the CNS structure in charge of processing pain

27

Example of dysfunctional pain?

Myalgia and migraines

28

What is dysfunctional pain?

Pain with no known cause

29

TRP channels allow for the entering of Ca or Na ions T/F

T

30

what is the Nocebo Effect?

hyperalgesia caused by expectation that relies on previous experience

31

example of nocebo effect?

pain felt on injections

32

What is Hypoalgesia?

Reduced pain sensation

33

What can be a cause (physiological) of hypoalgesia?

Release of endogenous pain modulators and activation of descending pathways

34

What is 'Fear Behaviour'?

Hypoalgesia induced due to activation of the Sympathetic System

35

What mediates fear behaviour?

the Amygdala (desensitisation to pain through PAG)

36

what is the pathway followed by nociceptive pain?

1 Activation of pain fibre
2 travels to spinal cord
3 enters via dorsal root (cell body in dorsal root ganglia)
4 can decussate 1-2 levels above or bellow via the anterior white comissure
5 goes to higher cortical centres via the Antero-Lateral System
6 reaches the Thalamus on contralateral site to stimuli
7 to somatosensory cortex

37

How many neurons form part of the pain pathway?

3

38

Where do NSAIDs act in the descending pathway?

PAG

39

where do opioids act in the pain pathway?

PAG and RVM

40

Where to weed act in the pain pathway?

Rostroventral Medulla

41

How much heat can cause pain?

> 52 degrees