Flashcards in Pancreas (normal and abnormal) Deck (166)
The pancreas is located in this area of the abdomen
The pancreas is _____ to the stomach, in the lap of the _____.
The pancreas is a _____ _____ structure that lies between the duodenal loop and the splenic _____.
Pancreas is divided into these 5 parts:
The pancreas normally measures between _____ and _____ in length (about _____ inches long).
This is the most bulbous part of the pancreas, which then narrows at the neck.
The pancreas head measures less than/equal to _____.
The porto-splenic confluence marks the anatomic position of this part of the pancreas.
The lesser sac lies _____ to the body of the pancreas, while the SV runs along the _____ surface.
The pancreas body measures _____.
This part of the pancreas is related to the spleen, left adrenal glands, and upper pole of the left kidney.
The pancreas tails measures _____.
The tail of the pancreas is related to the _____, _____, and _____.
left adrenal glands
upper pole of left kidney
This extends inferior to the main body of the pancreas; thus, it is important to scan the full extent of the pancreas, or carcinoma of the _____ may be missed.
The pancreas has 2 functions:
The exocrine function of the pancreas secretes _____, _____, and _____ through the _____ system and _____ cells.
The exocrine part of the pancreas comprises _____% of the pancreatic tissue.
The endocrine function of the pancreas secretes _____ via the _____.
islets of Langerhans
The endocrine part of the pancreas forms _____% of the pancreatic tissue.
The remaining 18% of the pancreatic tissue consists of fibrous _____ that contains _____, _____, and _____.
Amylase is a digestive enzyme for _____.
Amylase is produced by the pancreas and salivary glands, thus, _____ and salivary gland dysfunction causes increased levels of amylase.
Amylase is also excreted by the _____, so increased levels of amylase are also seen with _____ disease.
_____ levels parallel the _____ levels.
_____ levels rise first and _____ levels rise later, but persist longer.
Sometimes the normal pancreas echotexture has a _____ appearance.
The contour of the pancreas is distinct when its echogenicity is _____ (more/less) than the surrounding retroperitoneal fat. It usually appears _____ (roughly/smoothly) contoured.
With aging and obesity, the pancreas becomes more _____ (echogenicity), as a result of the presence of _____, and may be as _____ as the adjacent retroperitoneal fat. This echogenicity is _____ (reversible/irrereversible).
A technique used to better visualize the pancreas involves having the patient drink water to fill the stomach, while in the _____ position. While scanning the pancreas, the patient is then turned to the _____ or _____ position. The water in the stomach and duodenum is used as a(n) _____.