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Flashcards in Pancreas (normal and abnormal) Deck (166)
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1

The pancreas is located in this area of the abdomen

epigastrium

2

The pancreas is _____ to the stomach, in the lap of the _____.

posterior
duodenum

3

The pancreas is a _____ _____ structure that lies between the duodenal loop and the splenic _____.

non-encapsulated
retroperitoneal
hilum

4

Pancreas is divided into these 5 parts:

head
uncinate process
neck
body
tail

5

The pancreas normally measures between _____ and _____ in length (about _____ inches long).

12-15 cm
6

6

This is the most bulbous part of the pancreas, which then narrows at the neck.

head

7

The pancreas head measures less than/equal to _____.

3cm

8

The porto-splenic confluence marks the anatomic position of this part of the pancreas.

neck

9

The lesser sac lies _____ to the body of the pancreas, while the SV runs along the _____ surface.

anterior
posterosuperior

10

The pancreas body measures _____.

1.5 cm

11

This part of the pancreas is related to the spleen, left adrenal glands, and upper pole of the left kidney.

tail

12

The pancreas tails measures _____.

2.4 cm

13

The tail of the pancreas is related to the _____, _____, and _____.

spleen
left adrenal glands
upper pole of left kidney

14

This extends inferior to the main body of the pancreas; thus, it is important to scan the full extent of the pancreas, or carcinoma of the _____ may be missed.

uncinate process
uncinate process

15

The pancreas has 2 functions:

1) exocrine
2) endocrine

16

The exocrine function of the pancreas secretes _____, _____, and _____ through the _____ system and _____ cells.

trypsin
lipase
amylase
ductal
acinar

17

The exocrine part of the pancreas comprises _____% of the pancreatic tissue.

80

18

The endocrine function of the pancreas secretes _____ via the _____.

insulin
islets of Langerhans

19

The endocrine part of the pancreas forms _____% of the pancreatic tissue.

2

20

The remaining 18% of the pancreatic tissue consists of fibrous _____ that contains _____, _____, and _____.

stroma
blood vessels
nerves
lymphatics

21

Amylase is a digestive enzyme for _____.

carbs

22

Amylase is produced by the pancreas and salivary glands, thus, _____ and salivary gland dysfunction causes increased levels of amylase.

pancreatitis

23

Amylase is also excreted by the _____, so increased levels of amylase are also seen with _____ disease.

kidneys
renal

24

_____ levels parallel the _____ levels.

Lipase
amylase

25

_____ levels rise first and _____ levels rise later, but persist longer.

Amylase
lipase

26

Sometimes the normal pancreas echotexture has a _____ appearance.

mottled

27

The contour of the pancreas is distinct when its echogenicity is _____ (more/less) than the surrounding retroperitoneal fat. It usually appears _____ (roughly/smoothly) contoured.

less
smoothly

28

With aging and obesity, the pancreas becomes more _____ (echogenicity), as a result of the presence of _____, and may be as _____ as the adjacent retroperitoneal fat. This echogenicity is _____ (reversible/irrereversible).

echogenic
fatty infiltration
echogenic
reversible

29

A technique used to better visualize the pancreas involves having the patient drink water to fill the stomach, while in the _____ position. While scanning the pancreas, the patient is then turned to the _____ or _____ position. The water in the stomach and duodenum is used as a(n) _____.

LLD
supine
RLD
acoustic window

30

The posterior wall of the stomach overlies the _____ border of the pancreas body and tail.

anterior