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Flashcards in Urinary Deck (293)
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1

What is the path of blood to and from the kidneys?

RA
Segmental A.
Interlobar A.
Arcuate A.
Interlobular A.
Afferent Arterioles
Efferent Arterioles
Peritubular Capillaries/Vasa Recta
Venules
Interlobular V.
Arcuate V.
Interlobar V.
Segmental V.
RV

2

What is the structure called in which the glomerulus is located?

Bowman's Capsule

3

What is the path in the nephron?

Glomerulus
Bowman's Capsule
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
Descending limb
Loop of Henle
Ascending limb
Distal Convoluted Tubule
Collecting Duct
Calyx

4

What do the kidneys do? (5)

- Get rid of waste products from blood
- Balance volume of fluid in body
- Change BP
- Produce active Vitamin D
- They help make RBCs

5

What is the standard size of a kidney?

9-12cm

6

Every day our kidneys perform an essential job of filtering _____ of blood, to remove about _____ of waste products and unneeded water.

200 liters
2 liters

7

As early as the _____ week of embryonic development, the kidneys begin to form. The _____, or the functional units of a kidney, begin to function approximately at _____ weeks.

3rd
nephrons
8

8

The kidneys migrate from their pelvic location to the _____. This migration is not complete until _____ years of life, therefore the kidneys in infants and young children are located more _____.

abdomen
6
caudal

9

In the adult, each kidney is about the size of a tightly clenched _____ and each one measures between _____-_____ and weighs between _____-_____.

fist
9-12 cm
120-170 grams

10

The paired kidneys are retroperitoneal and lie against the _____ of the back. The right is slightly _____ in location as compared to the left.

deep muscles
inferior

11

The reddish-brown organs are _____ (convex/concave) laterally and _____ (convex/concave) medially.

convex
concave

12

On the medial border is an indentation called the renal _____ that leads into a space called the renal _____. _____, _____, _____, and _____ enter or exit the hilum and occupy the sinus.

renal hilum
renal sinus
renal blood vessels
lymphatics
nerves
ureter

13

If you want to test if what you see is hydro, have the patient _____ and check again. If the cortex has shrunk down, it was normal back up. If the cortex stays the same, it probably is hydro.

void

14

The parenchymal volume of the right kidney is _____ (more/less) than the left.

less

15

What are possible explanations for the parenchymal volume being less on the right kidney? (2)

1) the spleen is smaller than the liver, which allows for more left kidney growth.

2) the LRA is shorter than the RRA, therefore increased blood flow in the LRA results in increased renal volume.

16

The left kidney usually lies _____ (measurement) _____ (higher/lower) than the right.

1-2cm
higher

17

The kidneys are mobile and will move depending on _____. In the supine position, the superior pole of the left kidney is at the level of the _____ thoracic vertebrae and the inferior pole is at the level of the _____ lumbar vertebrae.

body position
12th
3rd

18

Within the renal sinus are major branches of the RV, which exits _____, the ureter which exits _____ and the RA which _____ (exits/enters) between the vein and the ureter.

anteriorly
posteriorly
enters

19

Also within the renal sinus is the collecting system. The collecting system (renal pelvis) lies _____ to the renal vessels in the renal hilum. The remainder of the renal sinus is packed with _____.

posterior
fat

20

To the RT kidney:

The adrenal gland is _____.
The liver is _____.
The RT colic flexure is _____.
The 2nd portion of the duodenum is _____.

superomedial
superolateral
inferior
medial

21

To the LT kidney:

The adrenal gland and spleen are _____.
The pancreatic tail is _____ to the superior pole.
The left colic flexure is _____.

superior
anterior
inferior

22

The diaphragm, psoas muscle, and the _____ muscle are on the _____ aspect of the kidneys.

quadratus lumborum
posterior

23

The renal parenchyma is composed of _____ and _____.

cortex
medullary pyramids

24

Echogenicities (compared to liver):

The renal cortex is _____ or _____.
Medullary pyramids are _____.
The renal sinus is _____.

isoechoic or hypoechoic
anechoic
hyperechoic

25

The 13 major structures that the kidneys are composed of are:

cortex
medulla
columns
sinus
pyramids
pelvis
hilum
major calyces
minor calyces
papilla
Gerota's Fascia
nephron
corpuscle

26

The renal cortex is the outer renal _____. It extends from the _____ to the _____.

parenchyma
sinus
capsule

27

The renal medulla is the _____ portion of the kidney. It extends from the _____ of the _____ to the _____ of the kidney.

inner
base of the pyramids
center

28

The renal column is between the renal _____.

renal pyramids

29

The renal sinus is the cavity within the kidney which houses the renal _____. _____ and blood vessels pass into the renal sinus through the _____.

pyramid
nerves
hilum

30

The renal pyramids are _____ (echo), _____-spaced triangles of collecting tubules, between the _____ and the renal _____.

anechoic
equally
cortex
sinus