Flashcards in Urinary Deck (293)
What is the path of blood to and from the kidneys?
Peritubular Capillaries/Vasa Recta
What is the structure called in which the glomerulus is located?
What is the path in the nephron?
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
Loop of Henle
Distal Convoluted Tubule
What do the kidneys do? (5)
- Get rid of waste products from blood
- Balance volume of fluid in body
- Change BP
- Produce active Vitamin D
- They help make RBCs
What is the standard size of a kidney?
Every day our kidneys perform an essential job of filtering _____ of blood, to remove about _____ of waste products and unneeded water.
As early as the _____ week of embryonic development, the kidneys begin to form. The _____, or the functional units of a kidney, begin to function approximately at _____ weeks.
The kidneys migrate from their pelvic location to the _____. This migration is not complete until _____ years of life, therefore the kidneys in infants and young children are located more _____.
In the adult, each kidney is about the size of a tightly clenched _____ and each one measures between _____-_____ and weighs between _____-_____.
The paired kidneys are retroperitoneal and lie against the _____ of the back. The right is slightly _____ in location as compared to the left.
The reddish-brown organs are _____ (convex/concave) laterally and _____ (convex/concave) medially.
On the medial border is an indentation called the renal _____ that leads into a space called the renal _____. _____, _____, _____, and _____ enter or exit the hilum and occupy the sinus.
renal blood vessels
If you want to test if what you see is hydro, have the patient _____ and check again. If the cortex has shrunk down, it was normal back up. If the cortex stays the same, it probably is hydro.
The parenchymal volume of the right kidney is _____ (more/less) than the left.
What are possible explanations for the parenchymal volume being less on the right kidney? (2)
1) the spleen is smaller than the liver, which allows for more left kidney growth.
2) the LRA is shorter than the RRA, therefore increased blood flow in the LRA results in increased renal volume.
The left kidney usually lies _____ (measurement) _____ (higher/lower) than the right.
The kidneys are mobile and will move depending on _____. In the supine position, the superior pole of the left kidney is at the level of the _____ thoracic vertebrae and the inferior pole is at the level of the _____ lumbar vertebrae.
Within the renal sinus are major branches of the RV, which exits _____, the ureter which exits _____ and the RA which _____ (exits/enters) between the vein and the ureter.
Also within the renal sinus is the collecting system. The collecting system (renal pelvis) lies _____ to the renal vessels in the renal hilum. The remainder of the renal sinus is packed with _____.
To the RT kidney:
The adrenal gland is _____.
The liver is _____.
The RT colic flexure is _____.
The 2nd portion of the duodenum is _____.
To the LT kidney:
The adrenal gland and spleen are _____.
The pancreatic tail is _____ to the superior pole.
The left colic flexure is _____.
The diaphragm, psoas muscle, and the _____ muscle are on the _____ aspect of the kidneys.
The renal parenchyma is composed of _____ and _____.
Echogenicities (compared to liver):
The renal cortex is _____ or _____.
Medullary pyramids are _____.
The renal sinus is _____.
isoechoic or hypoechoic
The 13 major structures that the kidneys are composed of are:
The renal cortex is the outer renal _____. It extends from the _____ to the _____.
The renal medulla is the _____ portion of the kidney. It extends from the _____ of the _____ to the _____ of the kidney.
base of the pyramids
The renal column is between the renal _____.
The renal sinus is the cavity within the kidney which houses the renal _____. _____ and blood vessels pass into the renal sinus through the _____.