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Flashcards in Retroperitoneum Deck (158)
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1

The peritoneum is the ____ membrane that forms the lining of the ____ and covers most of the abdominal organs.

serous
abdominal cavity

2

What are the 2 layers of the peritoneum

Parietal (outer layer)
Visceral (inner layer)

3

The parietal layer does what?

lines the abdominal wall

4

The visceral layer does what?

covers the abdominal organs

5

Between the parietal and visceral peritoneum is a space containing ____ fluid. This space is called the ____.

serous
peritoneal cavity

6

What organs are in the peritoneal cavity?

It is not inhabited by any organs! The organs lie in the abdominal cavity, which is enclosed or surrounded by the peritoneum.

7

During digestion, the organs are able to move and expand, essentially without friction, because of the ____.

lubricating peritoneal fluid

8

The peritoneal fluid contains ____ and ____ to ward off infection.

leukocytes
antibodies

9

The peritoneal cavity is ____ and essentially closed to the outside environment. In males, this potential space is completely ____ (open/closed).

sterile
closed

10

In females there is a communication pathway from the abdominal cavity to the outside world, via the (3). This communication creates potential vulnerability to ____.

uterine tubes
uterine cavity
vagina
infection

11

The peritoneal cavity contains 2 separate compartments:

lesser sac
greater sac

12

Lesser sac:
The space that is situated between the ____, ____, and stomach. The entrance to the lesser sac is the ____.

liver
pancreas
epiploic foramen

13

Greater Sac:
This is the rest of the ____ cavity. When you are imaging ____ with floating bowel, you are looking in the greater sac area.

peritoneal cavity
ascites

14

The RETROperitoneum is a ____ compartment that lies between the ____ and the ____.

posterior
transversalis fascia
parietal peritoneum

15

This lining circles the inner abdomen.

transversalis fascia

16

Borders of the retroperitoneum:

Superior border = ____
Inferior border = ____
Anterior border = ____
Posterior border = ____
Lateral border = ____

diaphragm
pelvic rim
parietal peritoneum
posterior abdominal wall muscles
trasversali fascia and peritoneal portions of the mesentery

17

2 layers of renal fascia (AKA _____ fascia) divide the retroperitoneum coronally into 3 compartments/spaces:

Gerota's
perirenal space
anterior pararenal space
posterior pararenal space

18

Kidneys and adrenal glands lie within the ____ space and are separated from the pararenal spaces by the ____ and ____ renal fascia (AKA ____ fascia).

perirenal
anterior and posterior
Gerota's

19

Space separated from the pararenal space by Gerota’s fascia.

perirenal space

20

The perirenal space includes the (8):

kidneys
adrenal glands
perinephric fat
ureters
renal vessels
AO
IVC
lymph nodes

21

Fat area between the peritoneum and Gerota’s fascia.

anterior pararenal space

22

The anterior pararenal space includes the (5):

pancreas
descending portion of the duodenum
ascending & descending colon
superior mesenteric vessels
inferior portion of the CBD

23

Space between Gerota’s fascia and the posterior abdominal wall muscles.

posterior pararenal space

24

The posterior pararenal space includes the (4):

Iliopsoas muscle
quadratus lumborum muscle
posterior abdominal wall
fat

25

These are ____ structures:

STOMACH
JEJUNUM
1ST PART OF DUODENUM
APPENDIX
SPLEEN
CECUM
TRANSVERSE COLON
SIGMOID COLON
RECTUM (PART OF IT)
LIVER
UTERUS
FALLOPIAN TUBES
OVARIES

itraperitoneal

26

These are ____ structures:

KIDNEYS
ADRENAL GLANDS
ASCENDING COLON
DESCENDING COLON
PANCREAS
AORTA & IVC
URETERS
RENAL VESSELS
GONADAL VESSELS
PROSTATE
LYMPHATICS
ESOPHAGUS
2ND, 3RD, 4TH PARTS OF THE DUODENUM RECTUM (part of it)
SUPERIOR MESENTERIC VESSELS

retroperitoneal

27

A useful mnemonic to aid recollection of the abdominal retroperitoneal viscera is

SAD PUCKERS

* S = Suprarenal glands (aka the adrenal glands)
* A = Aorta/IVC
* D = Duodenum (except for its first portion)
* P = Pancreas
* U = Ureters
* C = Colon (only ascending/descending branches)
* K = Kidneys & Renal Vessels
* E = Esophagus
* R = Rectum
* S = SMV

28

These lie posterior in the posterior pararenal space, and are separated from this spaces by their own fascia (____ fascia).

quadratus lumborum and psoas muscles
transversalis fascia

29

This joins with iliacus and is directly involved with most low back problems because it connects the lumbar vertebrae and discs.

psoas major

30

This is a deep core muscle located in the lower back.

quadratus lumborum