Paper 2 Jan 2017 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Paper 2 Jan 2017 Deck (22):

What is abrasion?

Sand and pebbles are dragged along the riverbed, wearing it away


What is attrition?

Rocks wear each other away as they knock together


What is hydraulic action?

Fast flowing water is forces into cracks, breaking up the bank over time


What is a solution?

Alkali rocks e.g. limestone are dissolved in acid rainwater


What is saltation?

Small stones are picked up and then dropped again along the riverbed


What is a suspension?

Tiny particles of sediment are carried in the river's current


What is traction?

Large stones are dragged along the river bed


What is the Three Gorges Dam?

Mega-dam located on Yangtze River in Central China


How long did the Three Gorges Dam take to build?

Took 15 years to build


Why was the Three Gorges Dam built?

Built in response to seasonal flooding along Yangtze River that has killed hundred of thousands of people


What was the 1998 Flood along the Yangtze River?

- Killed over 3500 people
- Left 13million people homeless
- Billions of dollars damage


How much did the Three Gorges Dam cost to build?

180 billion Chinese yen


How long will it take for the Three Gorges Dam to pay for itself?

It will take a decade to pay for itself by generating electricity


Who was the Three Gorges Dam funded by?

The China Development Bank


How does the Three Gorges Dam aid navigability and increase trade capacity?

The dam aids the navigability of the Yangtze by making it slower and deeper, increasing trade capacity


How has the Three Gorges Dam reduced the money spent on mining and importing coal?

Reducing the dependency on coal


How has the Three Gorges Dam reduced agricultural yield?

Lack of annual flooding reduces fertility of farmland on Yangtze's floodplain, reducing agricultural yield


How many people were required to leave their homes because of the Three Gorges Dam and what was the impact?

1.2 million +
Those who refused were forcibly removed
People relocated to cities where they struggled to find employment
New homes increased living standards


How many cities and villages did the reservoir of the Three Gorges Dam flood?

The reservoir flooded 13 cities and hundreds of villages, which were home to cultural relics and family burial ground


What was the result of sediment being blocked behind the Three Gorges Dam?

Yangtze River transports lots of sediment
Now blocked behind dam
Result in gradual destruction of Yangtze's delta and increased erosion downstream


Why is a reduction in biodiversity a consequence of blocked sediment behind the Three Gorges Dam?

Blocked sediment alters the chemical composition of water upstream from dam.
Leading to a reduction in biodiversity and the potential extinctions of some species


How does the Three Gorges Dam reduce global dimming and global warming?

Reduces dependency on fossil fuels