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Flashcards in The Changing Economy of the UK Deck (26):

How has employment in coal mining changed between 1960 and 2012?

It fell from 600,000 miners to only 6,000


Why did the coal mining sector decrease?

As UK mines became deeper, they became too costly to safely maintain. Cheaper imported coal from Russia + USA


What does the Clark Fisher Model Show?

Employment over time in different countries at different stages


Why have primary + secondary sectors decreased in UK?

- Less land available for farming
- More highly qualified work force
- Better trade routes so cheaper manufacture elsewhere


What is industrialisation?

The change from the pre-industrial to industrial stages of the model, involving a growth in the secondary sector


Name an example of a Newly Industrialised Country

Mexico - it has a large + highly skilled workforce


Why have many Mexican farmers been made redundant?

Farming in Mexico has recently been modernised
Increase outsourcing of resources


What proportion of Mexico's population is employed in primary work?

15% of the population is employed in primary work, although it only generates 4% of the countries income


What has caused deindustrialisation is some countries?

Competition from countries that can produce manufactured goods at cheaper prices
Automatic machinery reduces number of workers
Reduced demand for traditional products


Give an example of a country where deindustrialisation has taken place

The UK has focused on the tertiary + quaternary sectors and has relied on LEDCs to provide the manufactured goods they need


Why are there more part time workers now than in the past?

- More women in workforce, but parents still need to look after their kids
- More freedom with jobs + part time work


How have the roles for working women changed?

- More likely to do higher earning jobs than in the past
- Encouraged to apply for top-level jobs
- Have the same rights as men (although still may encounter prejudice within the workplace)


How have average wages changed?

- Risen as availability of high earning jobs has increased
- Not grown as much as cost of living
- Globalisation has helped people who earn less


What are the main economic sectors in NE England?



What is secondary, tertiary + quaternary employment like in North East England?

Tyneside become important centre for economic research
Nissan car factory opened in 1986 + now employs over 4000 people


What are the economic sectors in SE England?



Why is South East England more economically advanced?

- Focus of UK's motorway + rail networks
- 4 major airports
- Important ports (e.g. Southampton)
- Close to power + decision making in London
- Easy access to rest of EU via channel tunnel
- Large skilled local labour force


What is the Economic Cycle of Decline?

1. Market declines
2. Industries close
3. People lose jobs
4. Less money to spend in local shops / services
5. Local economy declines
6. No new investment


What is the Economic Cycle of Growth?

1. Government help
2. New industries encouraged to locate in area
3. Jobs created
4. More money to spend in local shops / services
5. Local economy grows
6. More people move to region


What is deindustrialisation?

The decline in industrial activity in a region or an economy


What are the disadvantages of deindustrialisation?

- high unemployment levels
- less money in local economy
- many empty factory buildings
- increased social issues (alcoholism etc...)


What are the advantages of deindustrialisation?

- areas of land available for development
- decline in water consumption
- reduced demand for energy
- decrease in pollution


What is redevelopment?

Development that aims to stimulate growth in areas that have experienced decline in the past


What is the regeneration of the River Clyde in Glasgow?

£3 billion development
Glasgow harbour includes casino, shopping centre, cinema + thousands of homes


Give an advantage of the River Clyde Regeneration

It has the potential to create 50,000 jobs


Give a disadvantage of the River Clyde Regeneration?

Money being spent on just one area and other parts of Glasgow are still neglected