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Flashcards in Pathology Deck (139):
0

Cobblestone appearance

Chron's disease
TB of the colon ~ caseating granuloma

1

Type of hypersensitivity: Mantoux test

IV

2

Type of hypersensitivity: ABO incompatibility

Type II

3

Substance responsible for caseous necrosis

Phosphatides

4

Virulence of MTB

Cord factor
(Trehalose mycolate)

5

C-myc

Burkitt's lymphoma

Associated with EBV

6

Starry sky appearance of the lymph nodes

Burkitt's lymphoma

7

Translocation in Burkitt's lymphoma

t(8,14)

8

KRAS

Colon

Kolon, PanKreatic

9

S-100

Melanoma

10

Most common type of melanoma

Superficial spreading

SS - sikat na sikat

11

Precursor of a melanoma

Dysplastic nevus

12

Translocation in CML

T(9,22)

13

Sea blue histiocytes

CML

14

Anti-gliadin

Tropical sprue

15

Anti centromere

CREST syndrome

16

Anti histones

Drug-induced lupus

17

Anti-glomerular basement membrane

Goodpasteur's syndrome

18

Anti-Scl

Scleroderma

Tightening of the skin

19

Malar rash/butterfly rash

SLE

20

Heliotrope rash

Dermatomyositis

21

Most common CA associated with dermatomyositis

Breast CA (paraneoplastic syndrome)

22

Anti-mitochondrial

Primary biliary cirrhosis

23

Most common manifestation of biliary cirrhosis

Pruritus

24

HLA-B27

Ankylosing sponylitis
Reiter's syndrome

25

Earliest manifestation of ankylosing spondylitis

Sacro-ileitis

26

Heliotrope rash

Dermatomyositis

Along the eyelids

27

Shawl sign

Dermatomyositis

28

Gottron's nodule

Dematomyositis

29

Nutmeg liver

Chronic passive congestion (CPC) of the liver

30

Pipestem fibrosis

Schistosomiasis

31

Laenec's cirrhosis is also known as

Alcohol cirrhosis

(micronodular cirrhosis)

32

Most common type of ASD

Ostium secundum ASD (fossa ovalis)

33

Most commonly encountered cardiac anomaly in children? adults?

Children: VSD
Adults: ASD

34

Most common complication of MI

Ventricular fibrillation > Ventricular tachycardia

35

Most common cause of death 24-48 hours after an MI

Ventricular fibrillation

36

Most common cause of death in diabetics

CAD

37

Most common cause of ESRD

Diabetic nephropathy

38

S-100 is a marker for

Melanoma

39

Type of melanoma with the worst prognosis

Nodular type

40

Most common cause of post-op fever 24-48 hours

Atelectasis

41

Most common post-blood transfusion complication

Fever > Blood transfusion reaction

42

Most common post-thyroidectomy complication

Wound hematoma

43

Most common organ injured in blunt trauma

Spleen

44

Most common benign tumor of the liver

Cavernous hemangioma

45

Most common malignancy of the liver

Metastasis

46

Dermatologic manifestation for visceral malignancy (such as gastric CA)

Acanthosis nigrican

47

Keratin pearls

Squamous cell CA

48

Type of cancer developed from a Marjolin's ulcer

Squamous cell CA

49

Palisading nuclei

Basal cell CA

50

Pearly papules

Basal cell CA

51

Worst headache of your life

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Ruptured berry aneurysm (spontaneous)
ACA > ICA/MCA
Seizures/loss of consciousness

52

Most common cause of pneumonia

Microaspiration of gastric contents

53

Most common site of diverticulosis

Sigmoid

54

Most common site of polyps

Rectosigmoid

55

Most common cause of lobar pneumonia

Strep. pneumoniae

56

Most common dermatome affected in herpes zoster

Thoracic dermatome

57

Most common type of renal cell CA

Clear cell CA

58

Responsible for the 2nd heart sound

Closure of the semi-lunar valves (aortic/pulmonic)

First heart sound: AV valve

59

Most common and most severe form of lupus nephritis

WHO class IV (diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis)

60

Type of nephritis associated with a wire loop appearance

WHO class IV (diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis)

61

Action of Ghrelin

Increases appetite and favors accumulation of abdominal fats

62

Diseases that cause: "salt craving syndrome"

Addison's disease
Barter's syndrome
Gitelman syndrome

63

What is the initial mechanism of transudate formation

Increased vascular permeability

64

In acute congestive heart failure, edema of the lower extremities is due to

Increased hydrostatic pressure

65

Cholangiocarcinoma at the junction of the hepatic ducts

Klatskin tumor

66

In parathyroid CA, how much of the parathyroid is resected

3.5

67

Number of lobes the prostate gland has

5 lobes

68

Normal weight of the prostate

20-30 g

69

Blood sugar level which causes hypoglycemia

<70 mg/dL

70

What blood sugar levels will cause seizure

<40 mg/dL

71

Diabetes type 2 complication? type 1?

Type 2: HONK (Hyperosmolar nonketotic state)
Type 1: DKA (acetone/fruity breath)

72

Type of nephropathy with the best response to steroids

Minimal change disease

(Lipoid nephrosis)

73

Lipoid nephrosis is also known as

Minimal change disease

74

Spike and dome appearance in the kidneys

Membranous glomerulonephritis

75

Lumpy-bumpy appearance of the GN

Acute post strep GN

76

Tram track kidneys
Double contour

Membranoproliferative GN

77

Tamm horsefall protein

Uromodulin

Proteins in the kidney

78

The most characteristic renal finding in DM

Nodular glomerulosclerosis

79

Kimmilstiel-Wilson

Nodular sclerosis in diabetics

80

Lesions in DM kidney

Kimmilstiel-Wilson
Armani-Ebstein lesions

81

Armani-Ebstein lesions are seen in

DM kidney

82

Cervical CA is associated with which HPV serotype

HPV 16 and 18

83

Owl's eye appearance

CMV - Gancyclovir
Reed Sternberg cells - Hodgkin's lymphoma

84

Lacunar cells

Reed-Sternberg cells

Mirror images
Owl's eyes

85

Napkin ring appearance

Colorectal CA

Apple core appearance

86

Dewdrop vesicle/Tear drop vesicles

Varicella zoster

87

Splitting of the skin

Staphyloccocal scalded skin syndrome

Toxin: Exfoliatin
Attacks the basement membrane leading to splitting of the epidermis and dermis

88

Main pathophysiology of shock

Vasodilatation

89

Tumor marker for a yolk sac tumor

Alpha feto-protein

Also seen in hepatoma

90

Strawberry mucosa

Gallbladder cholesterolosis

91

Strawberry gingiva

Wegner's granulomatosis

92

Strawberry tongue

Kawasaki
Scarlet Fever

93

Watermelon stomach

GAVE (gastric antral vascular ectasia)

94

Cherry red mucosa

Carbon monoxide poisoning

95

Blueberry muffin appearance

Congenital rubella syndrome
AML, ALL

96

Cottage cheese appearance

Vaginal candidiasis

97

Salmon colored discharge

Wound dehisence

98

Boiled lobster appearance

Scarlet fever

99

Most common site of endometriosis

Ovaries

100

Salt and pepper chromatin

Pheochromocytoma

101

Microscopic finding of a mosaic/lamellar pattern

Paget's disease of the bone
(aka Osteitis deformans)

102

Starry sky pattern of the lymph nodes

Burkitt's lymphoma

103

Orphan Annie nuclei

Papillary thyroid CA

Clear cell = orphan annie

104

Crew-cut appearance

Beta thalassemia

Due to bone marrow hyperplasia

105

Chimpunk facies

Beta thalassemia

106

Sanded nuclei

Chronic hepatitis B infection

107

Sea blue histiocytes

CML

108

Libman's Sacks endocarditis

SLE

109

Auer rods

AML

110

Strap cells

Rhabdomyosarcoma

111

Tobacco pouch appearance of the fallopian tube

Pelvic TB

112

Reid index

Chronic bronchitis

113

Collar button lesions

Ulcerative colitis

Associated with sclerosing cholangitis

114

Non-edematous PEM

Marasmus

Emaciation
Shrunken and wizened face

115

Disease of the displaced child

Marasmus

Problem: calorie deficiency

116

Edematous PEM

Kwashiorkor

Dermatitis, depigmentation
Hair is sparse and thin
Bipedal edema
Problem: protein deficiency

117

Flag sign/Signa de bandera

Kwashiorkor

Acrodermatitis enteropathica: zinc defieincy

118

Affected collagen in Alport syndrome

Type IV

Hereditary nephritis with hearing loss

119

During which part of sleep are nightmares and dreams noted

Slow wave sleep

120

Anti Dds DNA Ab (ANA)

SLE

Type III hypersensitivity

121

Anti-epithelial cell Ab

Pemphigus vulgaris

122

Anticentromere Ab

Scleroderma (CREST)

123

Anti-gliadin Ab

Celiac disease

124

Anti-histone

Drug-induced SLE

125

Anti mitochondrial antibody

Primary biliary cirrhosis

126

Increased alpha-feto protein

Yolk sac tumor
HCC

127

Anti platelet antibodies

ITP

128

Apple green birefringence

Amyloidosis

129

Aschoff bodies

Rheumatic fever

Painless fibrinoid nodule in myocardium

130

Ash leaf spots

Tuberous sclerosis

131

Atypical lymphocytosis

Mononucleosis

132

Autoantibodies against alveolar and glomerular basement membrane proteins

Goodpasture's syndrome

133

Bilateral amygdala lesions

Kluver-Bucy syndrome

Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility,

134

Birbeck granules on EM

Histiocytosis X

135

Nystagmus + intention tremor - scanning speech

Multiple Sclerosis

Charcot's Triad

136

Positive C-anca

Wegener's granulomatosis

137

Schiller-Duval bodies

Yolk-sac tumor

138

Leriche's syndrome

Occlusion of distal aorta

Hip, thigh, and calf fatigue
Impotence