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Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (40):
0

Catalyzes the transcription of DNA to synthesize precursors of mRNA

RNAP or POL II (RNA polymerase)

1

Joints Okazaki fragments

DNA ligase

2

Seals the DNA nicks

DNA ligase

3

Negative supercoils

Topoisomerase

4

Unwinding of DNA (positive supercoils)

Helicase

5

Proofreading of DNA

Exonuclease

3' to 5' direction

6

Amino acids in solution at neutral pH will predominantly have two charges (negative/positive)

Zwitterion/dipolar ion

7

RLE in heme porphyrin synthesis

ALA syntahse

8

Substrates for heme synthesis

Glycine and succinyl CoA

9

RNA polymerase has 2 units, which are for:
1) Sigma
2) Rho

1) Sigma: initiation
2) Rho factor: termination

10

Carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate

Pyruvate carboxylase

Anaplerotic reaction: reaction that links glycolysis with Kreb's cycle

11

RLE in urea cycle

Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase I (mitochondria)

12

Cycles that happen in both cytosol and mitochondria

1) Heme synthesis
2) Urea cycle
3) Gluconeogenesis

"HUG"

13

RLE for glycolysis

Phosphofructokinase

Inhibited by sodium stibogluconate (DOC leishmaniasis)

14

Enzyme responsible for disulfiram reaction

Aldehyde dehydrogenase

Metronidazole, Cephalosoporin, Procarbazine

15

Enzyme inhibited by Orlistat

Lipase

Helps reduce TG (dietary fats)

16

Enzyme inhibited by Cilastatin

Renal dihydropeptidase inhibitor

Given in combination with Imipenem

17

Jumping genes

Transposons

Sequences of DNA that can move around to different positions within the genome

18

Mirror images

Enantiomers

19

Chargaff's rule

A=T
G=C (3 bonds, stronger, higher melting point)

20

Avidin

Protein found in raw egg white

Inhibit the absorption of biotin

21

Deficiency in hereditary spherocytosis

Spectrin

22

Termination codon/Stop codon

UAA
UGA
UAG

23

Mutations involving the stop codons

Non sense codon

24

Sequence pattern of nucleotides in a DNA sequence or amino acids in a protein

Motifs

25

Responsible for protein folding

Chaperone

26

Desmolase is a type of

Chaperone

27

Unhealthy fats and increases the risk of CVD

Saturated fats (single bonds)

28

Essential fatty acids are which type of fats

Unsaturated (double bonds) FA

29

Substance responsible for thrombus formation

Thromboxane A2

For platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, and thrombus formation

30

Basic amino acids

HAL

Histidine
Arginine
Lysine

31

Reason of ketosis formation in fasting

Mobilization of FA

32

Teratogenic vitamin

Vitamin A

33

Southern blot
Northern blot
Western blot

DNA
RNA
Proteins

34

NRAM (natural resistance associated macrophage protein)

Mycobacterium avium intracellulare

MTB

35

BEG gene

MAI (or MTB)

36

Sugar attached to Blood type A

NAC
N-acetyglucosamine fucose

37

Sugar attached to Blood type B

D-galactose

38

Smallest gene for DNA expression

Cistron

39

Protein infectious particle

Prion