Pathology - L1 - Immunologic Diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathology - L1 - Immunologic Diseases Deck (48)
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31

tx of X-linked Agammaglobulinemia?

replacement therapy w/ human Ig

32

DiGeorge Syndrome?

- failure of development of 3rd and 4th phraryngeal arches
- absence of thymus, as well as parathyroids
- facial structures will also be underdeveloped

33

Severe combined immunodeficiency?

- X-linked, associated w/ failure in lymphocyte (esp T-lymphocyte) development
- autosomal recessive form associated w/ deficiency of adenosine deaminase

34

Isolated IgA deficiency?

typically asymptomatic; compromised mucosal defenses; respiratory, GI, urogenital infections

35

Complement deficiency?

- angioedema--repaid swelling under dermis
- causes:
1. allergy
2. complement deficency

36

HIV primarily targets what?

the immune system and CNS

37

how is HIV transmitted?

sexual contact, parenteral exposure to blood, maternal/fetal

38

what is the target cell of HIV?

cells w/ CD4 receptors (primarily T-helper lymphocyte)

39

Viral RNA is permanently integrated into host DNA via... ?

reverse transcription

40

What is the half-life of HIV?

half-life of 2 days; rapid turnover of HIV

41

what are the 3 things HIV virus can do?

1. remain silent
2. cause cell death
3. disrupt normal cell function

42

what is the clinical course of HIV infection?

- acute, self-limited response (similar to infectious mononucleosis)
- 8-10 year asymptomatic stage
- symptomatic stage (AIDS-related complex)

43

AIDS?

- endpoint of HIV deficiency
- 5 yrs after infection- 18% have AIDS
- 13 yrs after infection - 65% have AIDS, 20% have symptoms, & 15% have no symptoms

44

AIDS-related complex (ARC) clinical features?

- fever, wt loss, diarrhea, candidiasis, herpes zoster, hairy, leukoplakia
- increased infections: cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis
- pulmonary - pneumocystis carinii oneumonia (presenting sign in 50%)
- AIDS-dementia complex

45

Type 1 hypersensitivity

allergy/anaphylaxis; IgE mediated
- IgE binds to mast cells, releasing HISTAMINE and other vasoactive amines

46

Type II hypersensitivity

antibody dependent

- complement dependent (transfusion rxns, erythroblastosis fetalis)
- Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)
- Ab-mediated cellular dysfunction (myasthenia gravis, Grave's disease)

47

Type III hypersensitivity

- immune complex-mediated (SERUM SICKNESS, glomerulonephritis)
- Ag + Ab + Complement - Recruitment of neutrophils, resulting in tissue destruction

48

Type IV Hypersensitivty

cell-mediated
- delayed type - TUBERCULIN RXN, poison ivy, contact rxns) T- cells & mac's; chronic rxns may result in granulomatous inflamm
- T- cell mediated cytotoxicity - type I diabetes - tissue is destroyed by cytotoxic (CD8+) T cells