Pathology of Lung Cancer Flashcards Preview

Pulmonology 2 > Pathology of Lung Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology of Lung Cancer Deck (23):
1

What are the methods for diagnosis of Lung masses?

CXR
Spiral CT
MRI
Sputum cytology
Bronchial lavage, brushing
Biopsy

2

What are the most common causes of Coin lesions in the lung?

Granulomas
Chronic Pneumonia and abcess

3

What is the most common malignant cancer of the lung?

Metastatic CA

4

What are the top 4 causes of Pleural Exudates?

Microbial Invasion
Cancer
Pulmonary Infarction
Viral Pleuritis

5

What are the most common Paraneoplastic syndromes from lung cancer?

Cushing Syndrome
Innapropriate ADH
Carcinoid Syndrome
Hypercalcemia
Hypocalcemia
Gynecomastia

6

What are Systemic manifestations of Lung cancer?

Lambert Eaton myasthenic Synd: muscle weakness
Peripheral neuropathy: sensory only
Acanthosis Nigricans: dermatologic
Leukemoid reactions: hematologic
Hypertrophic Pulmonary
Osteopathy: clubbing

7

What is a Pancoast Tumor?

Direct growth of tumor from lung apex into brachial plexus
8th cervical thoracic nerves
Horner synd: enopthalmous, ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis

8

What causes Superior VC Syndrome?

Tumor inpinges on Superior VC.
Causes blood to back up into the upper body

9

What are common risk factors for lung cancer?

SMOKING(2nd hand too)
Asbestos exposure
Industrial hazards
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Radon
Molecular Genetics

10

What are the different types of Non-small cell CA?

AdenoCA
Squamous cell CA
Large Cell CA

11

Waht are the most common gene mutations seen in AdenoCA?
Squamous cell CA?

KRAS and EGFR mutations

p53, RB1, p16

12

What are the 2 types of AdenoCA?

Bronchial Derived and Bronchioloalveolar

13

What is bronchoalveolar CA?

Grows along pre-existing Alveolar Walls, preserves architecture, lepidic
Mucinous and non-mucinous

14

What is the progression seen in Squamous cell CA?
Charicteristics?

Metaplasia > Dysplasia > CIS > Invasive CA
Produces Keratin(pearls)

15

What are the Mutations associated with Small Cell CA?

c-MYC and RB1

16

How is Small Cell CA treated?

Chemo works well against rapidly dividing cells. mean survival is 1 year.

17

What stain is used in Identifying Sq Cell CA?

Papanicolaou (pumpernickle?) stain turns keratin red.

18

What is charicteristic of Large Cell CA?

Anaplastic(large, irregular looking cells)
Undifferentiated cells
Poor prognosis, metastasizes early

19

What are secondary pathologies related to lung cancer?

Change occurs distal to the tumor
Partial obstruction: focal emphasema(total: atelectasis)
Severe bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pulmonary abcess
Post obstructive Pneumonia

20

What are the most common causes of death in Lung Cancer?

Pneumonia
Lung abcess
Bleeding
Esophago-pleural fistula
Effects of metastases on other organs

21

What are the different Neuroendocrine Tumors associated with lung cancer?

.

22

What are the different pleural tumors?

Benign- pleural fibroma (benign mesothelioma)
Malignant- Malg. Mesothelioma

23

What are the 3 patterns of Malignant Mesothelioma?

Epitheliod (like adenoCA, most common)
Sarcomatoid(like fibrosarcoma)
Combination (biphaic)