Flashcards in Peds Lower Resp Tract Infection Deck (23):
Where does lower Resptract begin?
After the larynx
What is Pneumonia?
Inflammation or infection of the lung gas exchange units (terminal and respiratory bronchioles
What is the most common broad cause of pneumonia?
Strep Pneumo is most common cause of BACTERIAL Pneumonia
How can pneumonia microbes be transferred into the lungs?
Either deposition and colonization of the resp tract
OR Hematogenous (systemic spread)
What are the different host defenses that affect the Resp tract?
Nasopharyngeal air filtration
Laryngeal protection of the airway
Normal cough reflex and strength
Unobstructed airway drainage
Normal cellular and humoral immune function
What diseases affect the Mucocilliary escalator?
What is the most common clinical findings in Pneumonia?
(most sensitive and specific sign of pneumonia in infants)
What is the WHO diagnosis criteria?
Tachypnea and retractions to diagnose pneumonia in children younger than 5yo.
What is charicteristic of Pertussis?
"Whoop" sound heard on inspiration
Post tussive emesis(vomit)
G- Pleomorphic bacilli
Transmission from cough droplets
6 days incubation
How is Pertussis Diagnosed?
Leukocytosis with absolute lymphocytosis
CXR shows perihilar infiltrates, atelectaisis or emphysema
Nasopharyngeal swabs sent for PCR
What is Tx of pertussis?
Isolate Pt for 5 days
O2, IV fluids
Hospitalize if an infant
What is charicteristic of Influenza?
Spread by large droplets
School age children
Community outbreak in winter
Children infectious for >10 days
What is Reye Syndrome?
Systemic disorder of Mitochondrial function occurring during or after viral illness
Agitation, delirium, decorticate posturing
How is influenza diagnosed?
Nasal swab test
What is Tx of the FLU?
Zanamivir and Oseltamivir
Resistant to amantidine and rimantidine
What type of virus is RSV?
How is RSV transmitted?
Droplets, paticles and fomites
survives 6 hrs on stethoscope
12 hrs on hard surfaces
What are the signs and symptoms of RSV?
Mild to severe
Right upper lobe atelectaisis
What are the 2014 AAP guidelines for Tx of Bronchiolitis?
NO: viral testing
no albuterol or racemic EP
no Oral Steroids
no chest percussion
What is the presentation of a child with Chlamidia Trachomatis?
Repeditive Staccato cough. Conjunctivitis
Tachypnea and rales
ABSENCE of fever and wheezing
CXR not abn
What is the Tx of Chlamidia Trachomatis? Conjunctivitis?
Oral Erythromycin or azithromycin
Macrolides tetracyclines, quinolones, sulfonamides
What is charicteristic of mycoplasma pneumonia?
Dx made by cold aglutinin test
Definitive test is by mycoplasma titer