By which other name is the anterior pituitary known?
What is the anterior pituitary dervived from?
Which 2 types of hormones does the anterior pituitary secrete?
What is a trophic hormone?
A hormone which stimulates the activity of another endocrine gland
By which other name is the posterior pituitary known?
What does the posterior pituitary mostly consist of?
Extension of neural tissue:
- Modified glial cells
- Axonal processes
Which 3 cell types are found in the anterior pituitary?
What are the two types of acidophils found in the anterior pituitary and which hormones do they each secrete?
- Somatotrophs - GH
- Mammotrophs - PRL
What are the 3 types of basophils found in the anterior pituitary and which hormones does each secrete?
- Corticotrophs - ACTH
- Thyrotrophs - TSH
- Gonadotrophs - FSH/LH
What may be the cause of anterior pituitary hyperfunction?
What may be the cause of anterior pituitary hypofunction?
- Sudden gland haemorrhage
- Ischaemic necrosis
- Tumours extending into the sella
- Inflammatory conditions such as sarcoidosis
What is Sheenhan syndorme?
Hypopituitarism due to ischemic necrosis as a result of blood loss and hypovolemic shock associated with childbirth.
(it is also known as postpartum pituitary gland necrosis)
What is SIADH?
Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion
SIADH may have which two underlying causes?
- Ectopic secretion of ADH (tumours)
- Primary pituitary disorder
How can pituitary adenomas be classified?
- Cell type affected
- Hormone produced (or not produced in some cases)
A pituitary adenoma may be sporadic or associated with which condition?
What are the major problems associated with large pituitary adenomas?
- Visual field defects
- Pressure atrophy of surrounding tissue
- Infarction leading to panhypopituitarism
What is the most common functional pituitary adenoma?
What is the second most functional pituitary adenoma?
GH secreting adenoma
GH secreting adenomas can cause which two things based on the age and development of the affceted individual?
An ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma can cause Cushing's disease, what is another major cause of the condition?
Bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia
Pituitary hypofunction rarely affects just one hormone, it affects many. This is called what?
Pituitary hypofunction (or pan hypoituitarism) can be caused by which three things?
- Granulomatous inflammation (e.g. sarcoidosis)
- Infarction (e.g. Sheehan’s syndrome)
- Primary or metastatic tumours
What is the name given to the brain tumour derived from Rathke's pouch?
What may be a key diagnostic sign on a scan for a craniopharyngioma?
Presence of calcification
What are the key clinical signs of a craniopharyngioma?
- Visual disturbances
- Growth retardation in children
Following radiation for a craniopharyngioma, what may subsequently develop?
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)
(this is rare)
For which three reasons may diabetes insipidus develop?
- Centrally - Deficient ADH production
- Peripherally - Renal resistance to ADH effects
- SIADH - Ectopic ADH release
Each adrenal gland is composed of an outer ________ and an inner __________
Each adrenal gland is composed of an outer cortex and an inner medulla
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome is caused by ________ adrenal _____________
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome is caused by acute adrenal hypofunction