Pathology of the Pituitary and Adrenal Glands Flashcards Preview

The Endocrine System > Pathology of the Pituitary and Adrenal Glands > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology of the Pituitary and Adrenal Glands Deck (82)
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1

By which other name is the anterior pituitary known?

Adenohypophysis

2

What is the anterior pituitary dervived from?

Rathke's pouch

3

Which 2 types of hormones does the anterior pituitary secrete?

  1. Trophic
  2. Non-trophic

4

What is a trophic hormone?

A hormone which stimulates the activity of another endocrine gland

5

By which other name is the posterior pituitary known?

Neurohypophysis

6

What does the posterior pituitary mostly consist of?

Extension of neural tissue:

  1. Modified glial cells
  2. Axonal processes

7

Which 3 cell types are found in the anterior pituitary?

  1. Acidophils
  2. Basophils
  3. Chromophobes

8

What are the two types of acidophils found in the anterior pituitary and which hormones do they each secrete?

  1. Somatotrophs - GH
  2. Mammotrophs - PRL

9

What are the 3 types of basophils found in the anterior pituitary and which hormones does each secrete?

  1. Corticotrophs - ACTH
  2. Thyrotrophs - TSH
  3. Gonadotrophs - FSH/LH

10

What may be the cause of anterior pituitary hyperfunction?

Adenoma/carcinoma

11

What may be the cause of anterior pituitary hypofunction?

  1. Surgery/radiation
  2. Sudden gland haemorrhage
  3. Ischaemic necrosis
  4. Tumours extending into the sella
  5. Inflammatory conditions such as sarcoidosis

12

What is Sheenhan syndorme?

Hypopituitarism due to ischemic necrosis as a result of blood loss and hypovolemic shock associated with childbirth.

(it is also known as postpartum pituitary gland necrosis)

13

What is SIADH?

Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion

14

SIADH may have which two underlying causes?

  1. Ectopic secretion of ADH (tumours)
  2. Primary pituitary disorder

15

How can pituitary adenomas be classified?

  1. Cell type affected
  2. Hormone produced (or not produced in some cases)

16

A pituitary adenoma may be sporadic or associated with which condition?

MEN1

17

What are the major problems associated with large pituitary adenomas?

  1. Visual field defects
  2. Pressure atrophy of surrounding tissue
  3. Infarction leading to panhypopituitarism

18

What is the most common functional pituitary adenoma?

Prolactinoma

19

What is the second most functional pituitary adenoma?

GH secreting adenoma

20

GH secreting adenomas can cause which two things based on the age and development of the affceted individual?

  1. Giantism
  2. Acromegaly

21

An ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma can cause Cushing's disease, what is another major cause of the condition?

Bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia

22

Pituitary hypofunction rarely affects just one hormone, it affects many. This is called what?

Pan hypopituitarism

23

Pituitary hypofunction (or pan hypoituitarism) can be caused by which three things?

  1. Granulomatous inflammation (e.g. sarcoidosis)
  2. Infarction (e.g. Sheehan’s syndrome)
  3. Primary or metastatic tumours

24

What is the name given to the brain tumour derived from Rathke's pouch?

Craniopharyngioma

25

What may be a key diagnostic sign on a scan for a craniopharyngioma?

Presence of calcification

26

What are the key clinical signs of a craniopharyngioma?

  1. Visual disturbances
  2. Growth retardation in children

27

Following radiation for a craniopharyngioma, what may subsequently develop?

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)

(this is rare)

28

For which three reasons may diabetes insipidus develop?

  1. Centrally - Deficient ADH production
  2. Peripherally - Renal resistance to ADH effects
  3. SIADH - Ectopic ADH release

29

Each adrenal gland is composed of an outer ________ and an inner __________

Each adrenal gland is composed of an outer cortex and an inner medulla

30

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome is caused by ________ adrenal _____________

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome is caused by acute adrenal hypofunction