Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism and Thyroiditis Flashcards Preview

The Endocrine System > Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism and Thyroiditis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism and Thyroiditis Deck (85)
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1

What is secondary thyroid disease?

Hypothalmic or pituitary disease

(this will indirectly impact the thyroid)

2

What is a goitre?

A swelling in the neck from an enlarged thyroid

3

By what other name is thyrotropin known?

Thyroid stimulating hormone

4

Which cells secrete TSH?

Thyrotroph cells

(anterior pituitary)

5

How are T3/T4 produced?

  1. Postive stimulus on hypothalamus
  2. Thyroid releasing hormone secreted
  3. TRH acts on anterior pituitary
  4. Thyroid stimulating hormone secreted
  5. TSH acts on thyroid
  6. T3/T4 produced

6

At which pointsin the hypothalmic-pituitary-thyroid axis can T3/T4 self regulate their release?

  1. Act on hypothalamus to reduce TRH release
  2. Act on pituitary to reduce TSH release

7

What are the thyroid hormone levels like in primary hypothyroidism?

Free T3/4 low

TSH high

8

What are the thyroid hormone levels like in primary hyperthyroidism?

Free T3/4 high

TSH low

9

What are the thyroid hormone levels like in secondary hypothyroidism?

Free T3/4 low

TSH low (or "normal" within the context)

10

What are the thyroid hormone levels like in secondary hyperthyroidism?

Free T3/4 high

TSH high (or "normal" in the context)

11

Hypothyroidism is the product of any disorder that results in what?

Insufficient thyroid hormone secretion

12

What is myxoedema?

Severe hypothyroidism

13

Pretibial myxoedema is a rare clinical sign of which condition?

Graves' disease

14

Hypothyroidism is most common in which ethnic background?

White caucasian

15

Chronic thyroiditis is known by which other term?

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

16

What can cause chronic goitrous thyroiditis (Hashimoto's)?

  1. Iodine deficiency
  2. Drugs (amiodarone, lithium)
  3. Maternal transmission (antithyroid drugs)
  4. Hereditary biosynthetic defects

17

Non-goitrous primary hypothyroidism is known by which other term?

Atrophic thyroiditis

18

What may induce non-goitrous primary hypothyroidism?

  1. Post-ablative therapy (radioiodine, surgery)
  2. Post-radiotherapy (e.g. lymphoma treatment)
  3. Congenital developmental defect

19

Self-limiting primary hypothyroidism may be the result of which 3 main things?

  1. Withdrawal of antithyroid drugs
  2. Subacute thyroiditis with transient hypothyroidism
  3. Post-partum thyroiditis (immediately following birth)

20

What are some causes of secondary hypothyroidism?

  1. Infection
  2. Infiltrative
  3. Malignant
  4. Traumatic
  5. Congenital
  6. Cranial radiopathy
  7. Drug-induced

21

What is the most common cause of autoimmune hypothyroidism in the western world?

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

22

How is autoimmune (Hashimoto's) thyroiditis characterised?

  1. Antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPO)
  2. T cell infiltrate and inflammation

23

Which parts of the body are affected in hypothyroidism?

  1. Hair and skin
  2. Neurological
  3. Cardio
  4. Respiratory
  5. GI
  6. Gynae/reproductive
  7. Metabolic

 

24

How are the hair and skin affected in hypothyroidism?

  1. Coarse, sparse hair
  2. Dull expressionless face
  3. Periorbital puffiness
  4. Pale cool skin that feels doughy
  5. Vitiligo
  6. Hypercarotenaemia
  7. Pitting oedema

25

How is the cardiovascular system impacted by hypothyroidism?

  1. Reduced heart rate
  2. Cardiac dilatation
  3. Pericardial effusion
  4. Worsening heart failure

26

How are metabolic processes affected in hypothyroidism?

  1. Hyperlipidaemia
  2. Slowed, decreased appetite, weight gain

27

How is the GI system affected in hypothyroidism?

  1. Constipation
  2. Megacolon and intestinal obstruction
  3. Ascities

28

How is the respiratory system affected in hypothyroidism?

  1. Deep hoarse voice
  2. Macroglossia
  3. Obstructive sleep apnoea

29

What is macroglossia?

Abnormally enlarged tongue

30

How is the CNS affected in hypothyroidism?

  1. Decreased intellectual or motor activities
  2. Depression, psychosis
  3. Muscle stiffness, cramps
  4. Peripheral neuropathy
  5. Prolongation of the tendon jerks
  6. Carpal tunnel syndrome
  7. Cerebellar ataxia, encephalopathy
  8. Decreased visual acuity