Type 1 Diabetes Flashcards Preview

The Endocrine System > Type 1 Diabetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Type 1 Diabetes Deck (59)
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1

What usually causes the inception of type 1 diabetes?

An environmental trigger in a genetically susceptible individual leading to an autoimmune process involving pancreatic beta cell destruction

2

The days of patients frequently dying from ketoacidosis induced comas are gone. What are patients with type 1 diabetes most likely to ultimately die from now?

Cardiovascular or renal disease

3

Histologically how do the islet cells appear in type 1 diabetes?

The islet cells are filled with lymphocytes

4

Histologically how do the islet cells look with type 2 diabetes?

There is amyloid deposition around the islet cells

5

Which genotypes are associated with increased type 1 diabetes risk?

  1. HLA DR3-DQ2
  2. HLA DR4-DQ8
  3. Insulin gene (on chromosome 11)

6

Incidence rates for type 1 diabetes are worse at which time of the year?

Winter

7

Which islet cell antibodies may be detected in type 1 diabetes?

  1. IA2
  2. IAA
  3. GAD65
  4. ZnT8

8

Which antibodies for T1DM are more commonly sensitive for younger patients?

  1. IA2
  2. IAA

9

Which antibodies for T1DM are more commonly sensitive for older patients?

  1. GAD65
  2. ZnT8

10

Clinical type 1 diabetes can be accelerated by which factors?

  1. Infection
  2. Insulin resistance
  3. Puberty
  4. Diet/weight
  5. Stress

11

What are the foetal risk factors which cause there to be an increased chance of developing diabetes?

  1. Infection
  2. Older mother
  3. ABO mismatch
  4. Birth order (1st child more suseptible)
  5. Stress

12

If a patient is prediabetic, what are the risk factors which could cause them to beome clinical diabetics?

  1. Viral infection
  2. Vitamin D deficiency
  3. Diet
  4. Environmental toxins

13

What is the typical triad of symptoms in T1DM?

  1. Polyuria
  2. Polydipsia
  3. Weight loss

14

How does polyuria manifest in children?

As enuresis - inability to control urination e.g. wetting the bed

15

As well as the classic triad of T1DM symptoms, which other symptoms may be experienced?

  1. Fatigue
  2. Blurred vision
  3. Candidal infection
  4. Ketoacidosis

16

Candidal infection may cause which conditions in males and females with T1DM?

  1. Pruritis vulvae
  2. Balanitis

17

What are the key features of clinical diabetes?

  1. Raised glucose
  2. Ketones
  3. Decreased insulin secretion
  4. Decreased beta cell mass
  5. Decreased C-peptide

18

An annual review assessment for someone with T1DM should include which tests?

  1. Weight
  2. BP
  3. Bloods - HbA1c, renal function, lipids
  4. Retinal screening
  5. Foot risk assessment

19

Children are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes if their __________ has the condition

Children are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes if their father has the condition

20

What are the microvascular complications of chronic poor glycaemic control?

  1. Retinopathy
  2. Nephropathy
  3. Neuropathy

21

At which age is type 1 diabetes diagnosed most often?

5-15 years

22

Describe the onset of T1DM

Short with severe symptoms

23

At presentation with T1DM, there are ________ complications

At presentation with T1DM, there are rarely complications

24

Type 1 diabetes is associated with weight ______

Type 1 diabetes is associated with weight loss

25

What is LADA?

Latent onset diabetes of adulthood

26

Type 2 diabetes is usually diagnosed at which age?

>25years

27

Describe the onset of type 2 diabetes

Insidious onset with (initially) mild symptoms

28

At presentation with T2DM there are __________ complications

At presentation with T2DM there are commonly complications

29

Which factors are most associated with LADA?

  1. Male
  2. 25-40 years
  3. Non-obese
  4. AA +ve
  5. Other autoimmune conditions
  6. Not requiring insulin at presentation

30

In which autoimmune condition is there a very high chance of also suffering from type 1 diabetes?

Cystic fibrosis