What usually causes the inception of type 1 diabetes?
An environmental trigger in a genetically susceptible individual leading to an autoimmune process involving pancreatic beta cell destruction
The days of patients frequently dying from ketoacidosis induced comas are gone. What are patients with type 1 diabetes most likely to ultimately die from now?
Cardiovascular or renal disease
Histologically how do the islet cells appear in type 1 diabetes?
The islet cells are filled with lymphocytes
Histologically how do the islet cells look with type 2 diabetes?
There is amyloid deposition around the islet cells
Which genotypes are associated with increased type 1 diabetes risk?
- HLA DR3-DQ2
- HLA DR4-DQ8
- Insulin gene (on chromosome 11)
Incidence rates for type 1 diabetes are worse at which time of the year?
Which islet cell antibodies may be detected in type 1 diabetes?
Which antibodies for T1DM are more commonly sensitive for younger patients?
Which antibodies for T1DM are more commonly sensitive for older patients?
Clinical type 1 diabetes can be accelerated by which factors?
- Insulin resistance
What are the foetal risk factors which cause there to be an increased chance of developing diabetes?
- Older mother
- ABO mismatch
- Birth order (1st child more suseptible)
If a patient is prediabetic, what are the risk factors which could cause them to beome clinical diabetics?
- Viral infection
- Vitamin D deficiency
- Environmental toxins
What is the typical triad of symptoms in T1DM?
- Weight loss
How does polyuria manifest in children?
As enuresis - inability to control urination e.g. wetting the bed
As well as the classic triad of T1DM symptoms, which other symptoms may be experienced?
- Blurred vision
- Candidal infection
Candidal infection may cause which conditions in males and females with T1DM?
- Pruritis vulvae
What are the key features of clinical diabetes?
- Raised glucose
- Decreased insulin secretion
- Decreased beta cell mass
- Decreased C-peptide
An annual review assessment for someone with T1DM should include which tests?
- Bloods - HbA1c, renal function, lipids
- Retinal screening
- Foot risk assessment
Children are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes if their __________ has the condition
Children are more likely to develop type 1 diabetes if their father has the condition
What are the microvascular complications of chronic poor glycaemic control?
At which age is type 1 diabetes diagnosed most often?
Describe the onset of T1DM
Short with severe symptoms
At presentation with T1DM, there are ________ complications
At presentation with T1DM, there are rarely complications
Type 1 diabetes is associated with weight ______
Type 1 diabetes is associated with weight loss
What is LADA?
Latent onset diabetes of adulthood
Type 2 diabetes is usually diagnosed at which age?
Describe the onset of type 2 diabetes
Insidious onset with (initially) mild symptoms
At presentation with T2DM there are __________ complications
At presentation with T2DM there are commonly complications
Which factors are most associated with LADA?
- 25-40 years
- AA +ve
- Other autoimmune conditions
- Not requiring insulin at presentation
In which autoimmune condition is there a very high chance of also suffering from type 1 diabetes?