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The Endocrine System > Infertility > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infertility Deck (50)
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1

A rise in which STI is contributing to infertility?

Chlamydia

2

What is the definition of infertility?

Failure to become pregnant after 12 or more months of regular unprotected sex

3

What is primary infertility?

Infertility in a couple who have never conceived

4

What is secondary infertility?

Inferility in a couple who have previously conceived

5

What are the main physiological causes for infertility?

  1. Pregnancy
  2. Before puberty
  3. Lactation
  4. Menopausal

6

What are the main gynaecological conditions which cause inferility?

  1. Hypothalmic - Anorexia/bulimia, excessive exercise
  2. Pituitary - Hyperprolactinaemia, tumours, Sheehan syndrome
  3. Ovarian - PCOS, premature ovarian failure

7

Besides physiological and gynaecological conditions, what else may cause infertility?

  1. Systemic disorders e.g. CKD
  2. Endocrine disorders e.g. Testosterone secreting tumours, CAH, thyroid problems
  3. Drugs e.g. Depo-provera (medroxyprogesterone), explanon, OCP

8

Anorexia is defined as a BMI of less than what?

18.5

9

What are the key clinical features of anorexia nervosa?

  1. Loss of hair
  2. Increased lanugo
  3. Low pulse
  4. Low Bp
  5. Anaemia
  6. Halitosis

10

What is lanugo?

Fine soft hair on the skin

11

What are the endocrine markers of anorexia nervosa?

Low FSH/LH/Oestradiol

12

Which condition may be brought on by a low oestradiol in anorexia nervosa?

Osteoporosis

13

What is the most common endocrine disorder in women?

PCOS

14

What are the main clinical features of PCOS?

  1. Obesity
  2. Hirsutism
  3. Acne
  4. Cycle abnormalities
  5. Infertility

15

What are the endocrine markers of PCOS?

  1. High free androgens
  2. High LH, Low FSH
  3. High oestrogen
  4. Impaired glucose tolerance

16

Which criteria are used to diagnose PCOS and what are they?

Rotterdam criteria

  1. Chronic anovulation
  2. Polycyctic ovaries*
  3. Hyperandrogenism (clinical or biochemical)

(2/3 are required)

*At least one ovary must have at least 12 follicles between 2-8 mm in a single plane. These can be uni or bilateral

 

17

What may cause premature ovarian failure?

  1. Idiopathic
  2. Genetic (Turner's syndrome)
  3. Chemotherapy
  4. Radiotherapy
  5. Oophorectomy (ovary removal)

18

What are the clinical features of premature ovarian failure?

  1. Hot flushes
  2. Night sweats
  3. Atrophic vaginitis

19

What are the endocrine markers of prematrure ovarian failure?

  1. High FSH
  2. High LH
  3. Low oestradiol

20

What is a hydrosalpinx?

A distally blocked Fallopian tube filled with clear or serous fluid

21

What is endometriosis?

Presence of endometrial glands outwith the uterine cavity

22

What are the main causes for endometriosis?

  1. Retrograde menstruation
  2. Altered immune function
  3. Abnormal cellular adhesion molecules
  4. Genetic causes

23

Upon USS, what classic sign will endometriosis have on the ovaries?

Characteristic "chocolate" cysts

24

What are the key clinical features of endometriosis?

  1. Dysmenorrhoea (painful menstruation)
  2. Dysparenunia (pain during sex)
  3. Menorrhagia (abnormally heavy periods)
  4. Painful defaecation
  5. Chronic pelvic pain
  6. Uterus may be fixed and retroverted
  7. Chocolate ovarian cysts
  8. Infertility
  9. Asymptomatic

25

What can cause non-obstructive infertility in males?

  1. Chemotherapy
  2. Radiotherapy
  3. Klinefelter's syndrome
  4. Undescended testes
  5. Idiopathic

26

What are the endocrine markers for non-obstructive male inferility?

  1. High LH/FSH
  2. Low testosterone

27

What can cause obstructive male infertility?

  1. Congenital absence of Vas deferens (sign of cystic fibrosis)
  2. Infection
  3. Vasectomy

28

What are the endocrine markers for obstructive male infertility?

Normal LH/FSH/Testosterone

29

How can tubal patency be established in females?

  1. Hysterosalpingiogram (no known risk factors or tubal pathology)
  2. Laparoscopy (known risk factors and/or tubal pathology)
  3. Hysteroscopy (suspected or knopwn endometrial pathology)

30

Which biochemical tests would be carried out if a patient presented with an anovulatory cycle or infrequent periods?

  1. Urine HCG
  2. Prolactin
  3. TSH
  4. Testosterone and SHBG
  5. LH/FSH/Oestradiol