Osteoporosis Flashcards Preview

The Endocrine System > Osteoporosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Osteoporosis Deck (36)
Loading flashcards...
1

Osteoporosis occurs in what frequency of:

a) Women

b) Men?

a) 1 in 2

b) 1 in 6

(over 50)

2

What are the common sites for osteoporotic fractures?

  1. Femur neck
  2. Upper humerus
  3. Vertebral bodies
  4. Distal radius (Colles' fracture)
  5. Other long bones

3

What do vertebral fractures often lead to?

Kyphosis

4

What are two key problems secondary to kyphosis as a result of vertebral fractures?

  1. GI symptoms e.g. reflux due to compression
  2. Pain due to ribcage on hip

5

Bone turnover is required for which two processes in the body?

  1. Skeleton healing
  2. Calcium homeostasis

6

Bone density will begin to decline after what age?

Late 20s

7

Peak bone mass is attributable to which factors?

  1. Genetics
  2. Body weight
  3. Sex hormones
  4. Diet
  5. Exercise

8

Bone mass may be reduced in which situations?

  1. Increasing age
  2. Sex hormone deficiency
  3. Low body weight
  4. Genetics
  5. Immobility
  6. Diseases
  7. Drugs e.g. corticosteroids

9

Which modifiable risk factors exist for osteoporosis?

  1. High alcohol intake
  2. Weight
  3. Smoking
  4. Physical activity
  5. Drug use (corticosteroids)

10

What is osteopenia?

Low bone density

T score between -1.0 and -2.5 SD below adult mean

11

How is osteoporosis defined?

BMD < 2.5 SD below that of a young adult

12

Usually dietary calcium should equal ________ per day, but in someone with osteoporosis it should equal at least _________

Usually dietary calcium should equal 700mg per day, but in someone with osteoporosis it should equal at least 1000mg

13

Most patients will be given what if they have, or at at risk of osteoprosis?

Vitamin D and calcium supplements

14

How do bisphosphonates work?

Reduce osteoclast activity

15

Give two examples of bisphosphonates

  1. Alendronate
  2. Risedronate

16

Why are bisphosphonates taken for 5-10 years and then stopped for about 2 years before restarting again?

To prevent excessive build-up in the bones which increases risks of rare side effects (osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), AF, oesophageal cancer)

This is possible because the levels remain high enough in this time to still have an effect and maintain treatment

17

Which bisphosphonate is given by IV yearly?

Zoledronic acid

18

What is the benefit for some patients of using denosumab in osteoporosis? 

It can be used in renal failure unlike other treatments

19

Which osteoporotic treatment can trigger osteoblastic activity?

Teriparatide

(a synthetic parathyroid hormone)

20

When should teriparatide be used?

Generally reserved for patients with highest risk of vertebral fractures

21

Why do corticosteroids contribute to osteoporosis?

  1. Reduce osteoblast activity and lifespan by
  2. Suppress replication of osteoblastic precursors
  3. Deplete Ca2+ levels

22

What is Paget's disease?

A condition involving abnormal osteoclastic activty followed by increased osteoblastic activity

There is reduced bone strength and abnormal structure

23

Which bones are affected most in Paget's disease?

  1. Long bones
  2. Pelvis
  3. Lumbar spine
  4. Skull

24

Generally, Paget's is a disease of the ________

Generally, Paget's is a disease of the elderly

25

How does Paget's disease present?

  1. Bone pain
  2. Deformities
  3. Deafness
  4. Compression neuropathies

26

On a blood test, what will be raised for Paget's disease?

ALP

27

What is a rare, but serious, association with Paget's disease?

Osteosarcoma

28

How can Paget's disease be treated?

  1. Analgesia
  2. Bisphosphonates

29

Which deformity of the tibia is associated with Paget's, how will it present and what is there a high associated risk of?

Saber tibia

Hot (due to increased vasculature), deformed (curved like a saber sword)

OA

30

Osteogenesis imperfecta is a __________ condition

Osteogenesis imperfecta is a genetic condition