Which hormones can be produced by the anterior pituitary?
Which hormones can be produced by the posterior pituitary?
Describe how thyroxine can be produced with hypothalmic stimulation
- Stress stimulus on hypothalamus
- Thyrotropin releasing hormone released
- Anterior pituitary releases thyrotropin
- Thyroid releases thyroxine
What releases corticotropin releasing hormone?
What effects does corticotropin releasing hormone have?
Acts on the pituitary to cause ACTH release
Where does ACTH act and what is the result of this?
Why is prolactin different to other hormones in terms of its release?
Its release is under constant suppression by dopamine
If the pituitary hormone is GH, what is the peripherally acting hormone?
(insulin-like growth factor)
If hormone levels appear high, which type of test will be used?
Why is it a worry if a hormone suppression test fails?
It may suggest a tumour causing autonomous hormone release
If there is too little hormone, which test would be used?
Which hormones are tested in an insulin stress test?
Describe an insulin stress test
Hormone (cortisol and GH) measured at 30 minute intervals for 2-3 hours
How can pituitary release of cortisol be tested?
Synacthen (synthetic ACTH) administered
Cortisol levels measured at 0, 30 and 60 minutes
Describe a water deprivation test
- Serum and urine osmolalities tested for 8 hours
- IM DDAVP (desmopressin - an anti-diuretic) is administered
- Serum and urine osmolalities tested for 4 hours
- If urine/serum osmolar ratio > 2 then this is normal, any less confirms Diabetes inspidus
How are pituitary tumours classified based on size?
= 1cm microadenoma
> 1cm macroadenoma
Which cranial nerves are potentially most impacted in a pituitary tumour?
CN 3, 4 and 6
What is bitemporal hemianopia?
Loss of peripheral vision
What causes bitemporal hemianopia?
- Nasal retinal fibres detect peripheral light
- These fibres cross over at the optic chiasm which can be compressed by a pituitary tumour
- Hence, peripheral vision is lost
What are the two main causes for prolactin increases?
What are the main physiological causes for prolactin increase?
Which types of drugs can cause increases in prolactin?
- Dopamine antagonists (metoclopramide)
- Oestrogen, cocaine etc
What are the key pathological reasons as to why prolactin may increase?
- Stalk lesions (iatrogenic or RTA)
How does the timing of presentation of a prolactinoma differ in males and females?
Males - Late presentation
Females - Early presentation
What are the symptoms of a prolactinoma in females?
- Menstrual irregularities/ammenorrhoea
What are the symptoms of a prolactinoma in males?
- Visual field problems
- Antertior pituitary malfunction
What are the relevant investigations for a prolactinoma?
- Prolactin concentration
- MRI (size of tumour, pituitary stalk/optic chiasm damage)
- Visual field check
- Pituitary function tests
Dopamine agonists are treatment for prolactinoma, what is the most commonly used drug?
What are the benefits of cabergoline in prolactinoma treatment?
- Least side effects compared with other drugs
- Normalises prolactin in 96%
- Can induce tumour shrinkage
- Pregnancy rates increase
Acromegaly is due to an excess in which hormone?