Flashcards in Pathoma- Embolism Deck (23)
What is the most common type of embolus?
What is an atherosclerotic embolus?
a BV plaque that dislodges; characterized by presence of cholesterol
When do fat emboli arise?
bone fractures or soft tissue trauma
Fat emboli tend to lodge in the lungs. What would the pt present with?
SOB, petichiae over chest, hx of recent fracture or fracture repair
What is a gas embolus?
dissolved nitrogen precipitating out of the blood after diving or laparoscopic surgery
What would a pt with a gas embolus present with?
joint and muscle pain (the bends)
respiratory symptoms (the chokes)
What is Caisson disease?
chronic gas emboli leading to multifocal ischemic necrosis of the bone
What is an amniotic fluid emboli?
amniotic fluid that enters maternal circulation during L and D
How will an amniotic fluid embolus present?
SOB, neuro symptoms, DIC
What does an amniotic fluid emboli look like?
squamous cells, keratin debris
What is PE?
a DVT that lodges in the lungs
Which BVs typically are the source of a DVT?
femoral, iliac, or popliteal vein
Why is a PE usually clinically silent?
1. the lung has a dual blood supply (pulm artery and bronchial artery)
2. emboli are usually small and self-resolving
What is a pulmonary infarction?
a large emboli obstructing a large or med sized artery in the lung combined with a pre-existing cardiopulmonary compromise
Only ____ of PEs cause infarction.
What is the classical presentation of a PE?
SOB, hemoptysis, chest pain, pleural effusion, V/Q mismatch (perfusion abn), spiral CT shows vascular filling defect
What is a V/Q scan?
How would you ID the source of the DVT?
ultrasound of the extremity
What lab will be elevated in a PE?
What is the infarct like in a PE?
What is pulmonary HTN?
a complication of chronic emboli reorganization
Where do systemic emboli come from?
the L heart