Pathpharm cancer lecture wk 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathpharm cancer lecture wk 2 Deck (101):
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FRONT

BACK

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Define Cancer:

tissue overgrowth which is independent of the laws governing the remainder of the body. Serves no purpose to the body.

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What is the original definition for tumor?

A mass greater than 2cm

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Define neoplasm:

new growth

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T or F: All neoplams are cancer.

F. Neoplasm just refers to new growth. Does not specify if it is malignant or benign

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T or F: Cells that are atropic or hypertrophic can be considered normal

TRUE-depends on life stage

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T or F: Metaplasia is normal.

F. Metaplasia is always caused by "rebellious" cells

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When cells are dysplayed, but have not penetrated the basement membrane of the organ they are described as a:

in situ neoplasm

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When growth penetrates through the basement membrane of an organ and can spread throughout the body it is described as an:

invasive neoplasm

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A tumor that is well-defined, has a low mitotic index, and does not metastatize is most likely:

benign

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A tumor that is poorly defined, poorly differentiated, has a high mitotic index and has metastasis is most likely:

malignant

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Define anaplasia:

When a cell no longer resmbles the original cell. Ex: original cell was cuboidal, new cell looks columnar

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Altered contact inhibition refers to:

the cells within a tumor's ablility to continue growing and multiplying despite normal growth parameters

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Define autonomy:

cell's ability to disconnect from the normal laws of cell growth

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How does a malignant tumor change the transport of sugar and amino acids?

Instead of nutrients going to appropriate cells they go straight to the tumor

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T or F: A benign tumor is never life threatening

F. Depending on location benign tumors can be life threatening

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List the 6 hallmarks of cancer:

1. self-sufficiency in growth signals 2. insensitivity to antigrowth signals 3. Evading apoptosis 4. Limitless replicative potential 5. Sustained angiogenesis 6. Tissue invasion and metastasis

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Define angiogenesis:

the vascularization of neoplastic cells (tumor can develop circulation and grow quickly)

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Why are tumor classifications important?

help us know the origin of the cancer, important for diagnosing and treating cancer-site of origin determines appropriate treatment

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Cancer found in epithelial cells:

carcinoma

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Cancer found in grandular tissue:

adenocarcinoma

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Cancer found in connective tissue:

sarcoma

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Cancer found in lymph tissue:

lymphoma

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Cancer found in blood forming tissue (marrow)

leukemia

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Cancer found in the uterus:

fibroma

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Cancer found in bones:

osteoma

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Cancer found in cartilage:

chondroma

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Cancer found in glial cells of the CNS:

gliomas

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What is one of the most deadly types of cancer?

gliomas

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Carcinogenesis refers to:

the foundations of how a cancer begins

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T or F: All cancers have a huge genetic component.

F. Genetics plays a role, but not always.

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Define protooncogenes:

normal genes that code for cellular growth

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Define oncogenes:

mutant genes

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What do oncogenes do in their non-mutant state?

direct protein synthesis and cellular growth

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What are tumor suppressor genes?

Cells present in everyone that act to suppress the growth of tumors

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What role do DNA repair genes play in carcinogenesis?

DNA repair genes can get mutated and become carcinogenic

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List the 3 stages of cancer development:

Initiaion, promotion, progression

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What happens during initiation?

DNA is damaged and mutates

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What happens during promotion?

Upon exposure to a carcinogenic environment/genetics cancerous cells get enhanced

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What happens during progression?

local invasiveness, angiogenesis, metatasis-cancerous growth continues, adjacent organs may be invaded

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During initiation, what is happening on a cellular level?

DNA is damaged and cells mutate

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What is happening on a cellular level during promotion?

oncogenes are activated by a promoter agent

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What is happening on a cellular level during progression?

a malignant tumor is growing and spreading

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What are tumor-suppressor genes?

In their normal state negatively regulate proliferation-anti-oncogenes

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What happens if tumor-suppressor genes are in an unsteady state?

oncogenes will take over

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Viral insertion of HPV, HCV, or EBV can have what effect on a protooncogen gene?

can cause it to mutate

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Point mutations, gene amplification, and chromosomal rearrangement are all examples of:

protooncogene mutations

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Cancer is predominantly a disease of _____________

aging

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How do recurrent infections/inflammation relate to cancer?

Every time cells are killed off and need to re-grow there is a possibility of mutation.

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T or F: Cancer can easily develop after 1 cell mutation.

F. multiple mutations aare required before cancer can develop

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T or F: When tumor suppression genes are inactivated, oncogenes will be activated.

T. Tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes have an inverse relationship. When one is on the other will be off.

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T or F: Once oncogenes are activated the development of cancer can take years.

TRUE

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If a person is exposed to mutagens and somatic cells mutate, this mutation (will/will not) be passed on to next generations.

will NOT

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If a person is exposed to mutagens and germline cells mutate, this mutation (will/will not) be passed on to next generations.

will

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How might H. pylori cause cancer?

People who have chronic stomach ulcers (inflammation and constant cellular repair) are at high risk of developing gastrinoma

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Chronic inflammation is an important factor in the development of cancer because:

it can promote mutation, and invoke a decreased response to DNA damage

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Define proliferation:

The growth or production of cells by mutiplication of parts

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Define differentiation:

Describes how much or how little the tumor looks like the normal tissue it came from

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What are tumor cell markers?

biological substances that can be detected in blood, spinal fluid, or urine

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Give some examples of tumor cell markers:

hormones, enzymes, genes, antigens, antibodies

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What are some purposes of tumor cell markers?

Can be used to screen, diagnose, mark tumor progression

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T or F: Discovering a tumor cell marker by itself is enough to make a diagnosis of cancer

F. Markers are never used alone or as a diagnostic test.

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When making a diagnosis one should first:

Assess what the patient looks like

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The most common vehicle used for cancer to travel through the body is the ___________________

lymphatic system

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List the 4 most common sites to find cancer:

Brain, bones, liver, lungs

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Why are the brain, bones, liver, and lungs prone to developing cancer?

They are all highly vascular organs

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A cancer in stage 1 is:

confined to organ or origin

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A cancer in stage 2 is:

locally invasive

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A cancer in stage 3:

has lymph node invasion

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A cancer in stage 4:

has spread to distant sites throughout the body

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What are the 4 phases of tumor spread?

transformation, growth, local invasion, distant metastasis

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Define metastasis:

primary cancer cells travel and proliferate in other sites

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On a biopsy report T refers to a tumor's:

size (T0=no tumor-T3=skin/chest wall involved by invasion

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On a biopsy report N refers to a tumor's:

node invasion (N0=no axillary nodes involved-N2=mobile anda fixed nodes involved

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On a biopsy report M refers to a tumor's:

degree of metastases (M0=no metastases, M1=demonstratable metastases, M2=suspected metastases)

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How is tumor grading different than cancer stages?

Tumor grading is assessing the tumor itself, not the stage of cancer

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A tumor in Grade 1 is:

well differentiated and resembles the tissue or origin

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A tumor in Grade 2 is:

Moderatly differentiated, with increased size and shape of cells

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A tumor in Grade 3 is:

poorly differentiated, malignant, a lot of variation in the size and shape of the tumor

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A tumor in Grade 4:

has no resemblance to the original tissue, malignant

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Patients with cancer who have undergone chemotherapy may exhibit clinical manifestations such as:

Anemia, thromocytopenia (platelets <5000), pain, and cachexia (severe malnutrition)

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What are some warning signs of cancer?

Lump or swelling, a sore that doesn't heal, recent change in a wart/mole, unusual discharge, changes in bladder/bowel habits, nagging cough/hoarseness, difficulty in swallowing, extreme weight loss

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To make a definitive cancer diagnosis a clinician should:

Note persistence of sx's, identify various cancer markers, identify mass/metastasis, have a morphological confirmation

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T or F: Chemotherapy is systemic and will kill good cells as well as cancerous cells

TRUE

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Chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, and immunotherapy are all methods of:

managing cancer

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Skin dryness and hair loss are common side effects of:

chemotherapy

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Chemotherapy's ability to suppress bone marrow refers to:

suppressing RBC's and platelets

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T or F: childhood cancers are a disease entity.

F, they are described as a spectrum of malignancies

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What are the most common childhood cancers?

leukemias, sarcomas, and embryonic tumors

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What are embryonic tumors?

originate during uterine life, occurs when embryonic tissue does not fully mature, then later proliferates in this immature form

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Childhood tumors are commonly called ____________

blasts

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This type fo cancer commonly involves tissue (childhood or adult)

childhood

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This type of cancer has few prevention strategies

childhood

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This type of cancer has strong environmental and lifestyle influences

adult cancer

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This type of cancer commonly involves organs

adult cancer

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This type of cancer is 80% preventable

adult cancer

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This type of cancer has a >80% cure rate

childhood

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This type of cancer has fewer long term consequences

adult cancer

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What type of cancer is often detected early with screening?

adult cancer

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Prenatal exposure and increased parental age are possible environmental factors for:

childhood cancer

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What is the prognosis for childhood cancer?

80% are fully cured