pathpharm wk 4-infection and immune Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in pathpharm wk 4-infection and immune Deck (46):
1

What two factors are needed for an infection to occur?

A host and an organism

2

Define infection:

an invasion of a host caused by a pathogen

3

What are 4 different kinds of infections that can occur?

Bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic

4

What is one of the most common and deadly bacterial infections today?

MRSA-caused by staph aureus

5

Bacteremia/speticemia is used to describe:

a systemic bacterial infection, in which bacteria is found in the blood

6

What is a common cause of bacteremia?

E.coli

7

What are 3 examples of infections caused by viruses?

H1N1, HIV, the flu

8

Why are viral infections difficult to treat?

They do not follow a normal organism growth pattern, they are abnormally shaped, and have no nucleus just reverse transcriptase

9

Viruses are protected by several layers of ____________.

proteins

10

What are three examples of fungal infections?

candida (yeast), PCP, aspergillus

11

What are two examples of parasitic infections?

giardiasis, trichinosis

12

List the steps in the chain of transmission?

Infectious agent, susceptible host, portal of entry, mode of transmission, portal of exit, reservoir

13

T or F: The chain of transmission cannot be broken.

FALSE.

14

List three ways we can break the chain of transmission:

handwashing, education, @ portal of entry: proper wound care

15

Under normal circumstances inflammation can result in:

increasing healing, decreasing infection

16

T or F: Inflammation can result from infection.

TRUE

17

T or F: Infection can result from inflammation.

FALSE- inflammation will not cause infection, inflammation is always in response to an infection

18

Define hypersensitivity:

an altered immunologic response to an antigen resulting in disease or damage to the host

19

How does hypersensitivity develop?

a pathologic immune response develops after one or multiple exposures to an antigen

20

What is an allergy?

an exaggerated response to the environment

21

What is autoimmunity?

intolerance to self-antigens, does not recognize self as self

22

Define alloimmunity:

occurs when the immune system of on individual produces an immunologic response against tissues of another individual during transfusions, transplanted tissue, or a fetus during pregnancy

23

List the 4 mechanisms of hypersensitivity:

Type 1: IgE (allergies), Type 2: Tissue-specific, Type 3: Immune-complex, Type 4: Cell-mediated

24

What is happeneing during a Type I response?

histamine overreaction

25

What is an example of an allergic (IgE) response?

Seasonal rhinitis

26

What is happening during a Type II response?

destruction of cells due to antigen on membrane

27

What is an example of a Type II: Tissue Specific reaction?

Graves disease

28

What is happening during a type III response?

antigen-antibody complexes are deposited on vessels or tissues

29

What is an example of a Type III:Immune-complex reaction?

systemic lupus erythematosus

30

What is happening during a Type IV resonse?

T-cells are over sensitized and react to the enviroment

31

What is an example of a Type IV:cell-mediated reaction?

contact sensitivity to metals (jewelry) or poison ivy

32

What is the most rapid and severe immediatee hypersensitivity reaction?

anaphylaxis

33

Wht two types of immunodeficiencies exist?

congenital and aquired

34

What is an example of a congenital immunodeficiency?

agama globulin anemia

35

What is an example of an aquired immunodeficiency?

AIDS

36

T or F: HIV and AIDS are the same thing, and the terms can be used interchangeably

FALSE. An HIV infection can lead to AIDS, but they are NOT the same thing

37

T or F: Drugs can successfully counteract the HIV virus when it is inside human cells.

FALSE

38

What is the ultimate goal of HIV medications?

To control the disease, not cure it

39

What are CD4 cells?

Helper T and B cells

40

A person is considered to have AIDS when what conditions are met?

HIV infection + CD4 <200

41

What are opportunistic diseases?

Will take over the host when they get the opportunity, for example, when a person becomes immunocompromised

42

What is an example of an opportunistic disease?

HIV-can live in a host for years and can turn into an AIDS infection if the host becomes immunocompromised

43

What happens during the acute phase of an HIV infection?

lympadenopathy, fevers, fatigue, malaise, joint pain, weight loss, muscle wasting

44

What is happening during the dormant phase of an HIV infection?

A patient will have no symptoms, but the virus is present in their system

45

What is the final stage of an HIV infection?

AIDS

46

How is HIV transmitted?

through blood and bodily fluids