pathpharm wk 3-Immunity and inflammation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in pathpharm wk 3-Immunity and inflammation Deck (72):
1

What are the body's 3 levels of defense against infection?

(Level one: Physical barriers, Level 2: inflammation) non-specific immunity, Level 3: specific immunity

2

Define Non-specific Immunity:

The innate resistance and protection that the natural epithelial barrier and inflammation provide, does not recognize specific antigens, it just attacks foreign bodies.

3

What are some examples of physical barries in non-specific immunity?

skin, hair follicles, cilia/cough reflex, stomach acid, mucous membranes

4

What cellular mechanism contributes to non-specific immunity?

Inflammation

5

T or F: Stating that non-specific immunity is species specific is referring to differences in immunity between people and other species, such as elephants.

FALSE. It is referring to the fact that if a pathogen gets into an organ, that organ will react. Ex: pathogen in the lungs, the lungs will respond, but other organs will not.(excluding systemic infections)

6

Which three general groups of cells respond in non-specific immunity?

granulocytes, agranulocytes, lymphocytes

7

Which cells are considered the first responders, much like soldiers on the front line of a battle?

Neutrophils

8

Which granulocytes are likely to be present during an allergy episode or parasite invasion?

Eosinophils

9

Which cells have an impotant role in stimulating mediators?

basophils

10

Monocytes are the premature form of:

macrophages

11

Macrophages are like bringing in the tanks, and are considered the _____________ responders

second

12

Neutrophils and Macrophages both destroy invaders through a process called ___________

phagocytosis

13

The second line of defense after pysical barriers is

inflammation

14

What are the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation?

redness, heat, swelling, pain

15

What are the three characteristic changes that occur during the vascular (first) phase of inflammation?

vasodilation, increased vasular permeability and leakage of fluid out of the vessel, white blood cells adhere to the inner walls of vessels

16

Exudate refers to:

fluids that may be exuded from the cite of an injury during the inflammation period

17

What are some systemic effects of inflammation?

fever, leukocytosis, septic shock, scar tissue formation

18

During the cellular phase of the inflammatory response neutrophils and macrophages:

eat and destroy cellular debris and infectious agents

19

During the cellular phase of the inflammatory response these cells prevent the inflammatory response from spreading to areas of healthy tissue :

Eosinophils

20

Platelets are responsible for:

Stopping any bleeding that has occurred

21

List the three protein systems responsible for mediating inflammation:

complement system, clotting system, kinen system

22

The compliment system is extremely important because activation of the compliment cascade:

may destroy pathogens directly and can activate or collaborate with virtually every other component of the inflammatory response

23

Proteins of the ____________ system are among the body's most potent defenders against bacterial infection

compliment system

24

What are the three different ways the complement system can be activated?

1. The classical pathway, (if #1 fails) 2. The lectin pathway, 3. alternative pathway

25

Which pathway is used when the complement system is activated by antibodies bound to antigens?

The classical pathway

26

Activating the complement system by certain bacterial carbohydrates is an example of which pathway?

The Lectin pathway

27

Activating the complement system through the alternative pathway involves:

Activation by gram-negative bacterial and fungal cell wall polysaccharides

28

T or F: The complement system is nonspecific.

TRUE

29

T or F: The alternative pathway is organism specific.

TRUE-This pathway will only be activated if gram-negative or fungal organisms are present

30

The ____________ is a group of plasma proteins that form a fibrinous meshwork at an injured or inflamed site

clotting system

31

The purpose of the clotting system is to A.prevent the spread of infection to adjacent tissues B.trap microorganisms and foreign bodies at the injury site for removal C.form a clot that stops bleeding D. provide a framework for future repair and healing E. All of the above

E

32

T or F: The kinin system augments inflammation in many ways.

TRUE

33

The primary kinin produced from the kinin system is:

bradykinin

34

Bradykinin has what effect on blood vessels?

increases vascular permeability, causes vasodilation

35

List 4 chemical mediators of inflammation:

histamine/leukotrienes, prostaglandins, cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)

36

_______________ inflammation is a defensive response to stimuli causing a protective vascular connective tissue reaction

acute

37

T or F: Acute inflammation is a healthy response by the body to a harmful situation.

TRUE

38

___________ inflammation is a dangerous, out of control immunologic reaction lasting longer than 2 weeks.

Chronic

39

Persistance of infection, antigen, or foreign body can lead to:

chronic inflammation

40

Some microorganisms produce toxins that can remain even after they themselves are killed. This can lead to:

prolonged irritation, thus chronic inflammation

41

T or F: Chronic inflammation can lead to cancer, Diabetes II, arthritis, cardiovascualr disease, and other chronic conditions.

TRUE

42

If non-specific immunity is not successful in destroying a pathogen what comes into play?

specific (aquired) immunity

43

What are the three main keypoints to remember regarding aquired immunity?

1. recognize self from non-self 2. memory 3. specificity

44

An antibody will only have an effect if an antigen is________

recognized.

45

_____ and _____ lymphocytes play a very active role in aquired immunity.

T, B

46

These lymphocytes originate in bone marrow

B lymphocytes

47

Humoral immunity is mediated by _________ and produced by_________ and ____________.

antibodies, plasma and memory B cells

48

List the 4 different types of antibodies:

IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE

49

These antibodies are considered the 1st degree response

IgM

50

These antibodies are considered the second degree response

IgG

51

These antibodies are involved in allergic reactions:

IgA, IgE

52

Infants are born with __________antibodies that drop until 6 months-when it is recommended to give a flu shot.

IgG

53

This antibody is developed at birth.

IgM

54

What are the main functions of antibodies?

neutralize antigens, neutralize viruses, promote phagocytosis of bacteria, boost inflammatory process

55

Memory B cells are important in humoral immunity because:

they can rapidly produce more antibody to withstand a second challene by the same antigen

56

These lymphocytes originate in the thymus

T lymphocytes

57

Cellular immunity is mediated by

T cells

58

Memory T cells are important because:

they can respond more quickly to a second challenge by the same antigen

59

Killer T cells:

Directly destroy antigens

60

Helper T cells:

stimulate T and B cells

61

Suppressor T cells:

inhibit T and B cells

62

What are Antigen Presenting Cells (APC's)?

Cells that "process" antigens so they can be presented to cells of the immune system-thus initiating the immune response

63

An example of an APC is a

macrophage

64

Monocytes and macrophages control the immune system by:

recognizing antigens and tolerating self-antigens

65

What is a cytokine?

Like a messenger, a substance secreted by certain cells of the immune system that have an effect on other cells-there are several different kinds

66

Define specific immunity:

has memory and more rapidly targets and eradicates a second infection of a particular disease-causing microorganism

67

By what two ways can a person aquire specific immunity to a disease?

Active or passive acquisition

68

Define active aquired immunity:

produced by an individual after either natural exposure to an antigen or after immunization

69

Define passive aquired immunity:

occurs when preformed antibodies or T lymphocytes are transferred from a donor to the recepient, as in from mother to fetus or newborn

70

______________ immunity is long-lived, while ____________ immunity is only temporary because the antibodies or T cells are eventually destroyed.

Active aquired, passive

71

Elderly persons may have a decrease in immune function due to what three main factors?

Thymus atrophies, decreased T-cell response, increased autoantibodies

72

What is the difference between inflammation and an immune response?

Inflammation is non-specific and has no memory-will react the same @ initial and subsequent exposures; immune response is antigen specific and has a memory