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Flashcards in Pearls from Dr Hogan Deck (22):
1

What are four possible causes of delirium after surgery?

PE 

Side effect of opioid

Sepsis

Alcohol withdrawal

2

What are the 3 major indications for dialysis?

Metabolite control

- acid/base

- urea

Fluid control

Control hyperkalaemia

3

What is antiphospholipid syndrome?

Is haemostatic disorder that manifests with recurrent venous or arterial thrombotic event and/or fetal loss

Laboratory abnormalities found are persistently elevated levels of antibodies directed against membrane anionic phospholipids

4

What are the words macular and papular used to describe?

Whether a skin lesion is risen (papular) or flat (macular)

5

What do the words petechia, purpura and ecchymosis refer to?

All are descriptions of the size of macule of blood under the skin

Petechia - pin point sized

Purpura is larger

Ecchymosis even larger

None of them blanche

6

How might Fe deficiency present in the hands?

Spooning of the fingers (Koilonychia)

7

What is the underlying cause of leukonychia?

Hypoalbuminea

8

What are some causes of hypoalbuminaemia?

Liver failure

Protein losing enteropathies (albumin lost through GIT)

Extensive thermal burns

9

How might a protein losing enteropathy present and what are some causes?

Leukonychia, peripheral - only if loss can not be compensated for my increase production

 

Crohn's disease

Tumours

Menetrier's disease

Coeliac's disease

Lymphatic disorders

10

What should be done when examining a caput medusae?

Check for direction of blood flow by occluding each end

11

What are the 4 sites of possible varices in portal hypertension?

Lower oesophagus

Rectum

Umbilicus

 

12

What are the stigmata of chronic liver disease?

Jaundice 

Hepatomegaly

Splenomegaly

Palmar erythema 

Leukonychia

Dupuytrens contracture

Clubbing

Caput medusae

Spider naevi

Gynaecomastia

Testicular atropy

Ascites

Asterixis

 

 

13

What are the 5 causes of a massive spleen?

Malaria

Visceral leishmaniasis aka Kalar Azar

Hairy cell leukaemia

CML

Mylofibrosis

14

How would a right sided internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) present on eye examination? What condition would be the mostly likely cause?

On laze to the left;

R eye would fail to adduct

L eye would exhibit significant nystagmus

15

What are 3 possible causes of anaemia in HIV?

Anaemia of chronic disease

Warm autoimmune anaemia

HART therapy suppression of RBC production

16

What are some causes of warm autoimmune haemolytic anaemia?

Primary: Idiopathic

 

Secondary: SLE

Lymphoproliferative disorders (CLL, lymphomas)

Drugs

Infections - HIV, CMV, EBV

 

17

How does B12 deficiency cause internuclear ophthalmoplegia?

Degradation of the mamilary bodies

18

What is the difference 

19

What are two red flag questions to ask about for headache?

Is the headache present upon waking before moving

Is the headache associated with vomiting

20

How might you be able to differentiate septic shock from cardiogenic shock clinically?

The hands will be warm in septic shock due to peripheral vasodilation

21

What is protein-losing enteropathy? What are some causes?

Increased protein loss across an abnormal mucosa causing hypoalbuminaemia

Inflammatory or ulcerative lesions (eg Crohn's), tumours, Menetrier's, coeliac disease and lymphatic disorders

22

What are some causes of hypoalbuminaemia?

Deficient production: liver disease

Increased loss: nephritic disease, protein loss enteropathy

Nutrient deficiency: Kwashiorkor's